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Ankle brachial index as a predictor of cognitive impairment in the general population: ten-year follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 May; 54(5):763-9.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine whether the ankle brachial index (ABI, a marker of generalized atherosclerosis) is associated with cognitive impairment after 10 years in older people.

DESIGN

Cohort study (Edinburgh Artery Study).

SETTING

Eleven general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland.

PARTICIPANTS

Seven hundred seventeen men and women aged 55 to 74 from the general population, followed for 10 years.

MEASUREMENTS

ABI measured at baseline and major cognitive functions (including premorbid function using the National Adult Reading Test, NART) tested after 10 years.

RESULTS

After adjustment for age and sex, a low ABI was associated with lower scoring (bottom tertile vs top tertile) on Raven's Matrices (odds ratio (OR)=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-2.6), Verbal Fluency (OR =1.8, 95% CI =1.1-3.0), and Digit Symbol Test (OR =2.3, 95% CI =1.3-4.2), suggesting that the ABI is predictive of poorer performance in nonverbal reasoning, verbal fluency, and information processing speed. The association between ABI and the Digit Symbol Test remained significant after further adjustment for premorbid cognitive function (tested using the NART), suggesting that the ABI is also predictive of decline in information processing speed (from premorbid ability to that measured here in older age).

CONCLUSION

The ABI may be useful in identifying older individuals at higher risk of cognitive impairment. In the future, preventive measures developed to target individuals with a low ABI should consider measures to reduce vascular-related cognitive decline as well as cardiovascular events, in an effort to reduce the incidence and consequences of subsequent cognitive impairment and dementia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wolfson Unit for Prevention of Peripheral Vascular Diseases, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place Edinburgh, Scotland. Jackie.Price@ed.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16696741

Citation

Price, Jacqueline F., et al. "Ankle Brachial Index as a Predictor of Cognitive Impairment in the General Population: Ten-year Follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 54, no. 5, 2006, pp. 763-9.
Price JF, McDowell S, Whiteman MC, et al. Ankle brachial index as a predictor of cognitive impairment in the general population: ten-year follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(5):763-9.
Price, J. F., McDowell, S., Whiteman, M. C., Deary, I. J., Stewart, M. C., & Fowkes, F. G. (2006). Ankle brachial index as a predictor of cognitive impairment in the general population: ten-year follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54(5), 763-9.
Price JF, et al. Ankle Brachial Index as a Predictor of Cognitive Impairment in the General Population: Ten-year Follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(5):763-9. PubMed PMID: 16696741.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ankle brachial index as a predictor of cognitive impairment in the general population: ten-year follow-up of the Edinburgh Artery Study. AU - Price,Jacqueline F, AU - McDowell,Sarah, AU - Whiteman,Martha C, AU - Deary,Ian J, AU - Stewart,Marlene C, AU - Fowkes,F Gerald R, PY - 2006/5/16/pubmed PY - 2006/6/14/medline PY - 2006/5/16/entrez SP - 763 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the American Geriatrics Society JO - J Am Geriatr Soc VL - 54 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the ankle brachial index (ABI, a marker of generalized atherosclerosis) is associated with cognitive impairment after 10 years in older people. DESIGN: Cohort study (Edinburgh Artery Study). SETTING: Eleven general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred seventeen men and women aged 55 to 74 from the general population, followed for 10 years. MEASUREMENTS: ABI measured at baseline and major cognitive functions (including premorbid function using the National Adult Reading Test, NART) tested after 10 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and sex, a low ABI was associated with lower scoring (bottom tertile vs top tertile) on Raven's Matrices (odds ratio (OR)=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-2.6), Verbal Fluency (OR =1.8, 95% CI =1.1-3.0), and Digit Symbol Test (OR =2.3, 95% CI =1.3-4.2), suggesting that the ABI is predictive of poorer performance in nonverbal reasoning, verbal fluency, and information processing speed. The association between ABI and the Digit Symbol Test remained significant after further adjustment for premorbid cognitive function (tested using the NART), suggesting that the ABI is also predictive of decline in information processing speed (from premorbid ability to that measured here in older age). CONCLUSION: The ABI may be useful in identifying older individuals at higher risk of cognitive impairment. In the future, preventive measures developed to target individuals with a low ABI should consider measures to reduce vascular-related cognitive decline as well as cardiovascular events, in an effort to reduce the incidence and consequences of subsequent cognitive impairment and dementia. SN - 0002-8614 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16696741/Ankle_brachial_index_as_a_predictor_of_cognitive_impairment_in_the_general_population:_ten_year_follow_up_of_the_Edinburgh_Artery_Study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00702.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -