Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) samplers for measuring contaminants in the Antarctic marine environment.Chemosphere. 2006 Oct; 65(5):811-20.C
This work has been the first application of DGT samplers for measuring metals in water and sediment porewater in the Antarctic environment, and whilst DGT water sampling was restricted to quantification of Cd, Fe and Ni, preconcentration using Empore chelating disks provided results for an additional nine elements (Sn, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As). Although higher concentrations were measured for some metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) using the Empore technique, most likely due to particulate-bound or colloidal species becoming entrapped in the Empore chelating disks, heavy metal concentrations in the impacted Brown Bay were found to be comparable with the non-impacted O'Brien Bay. Sediment porewater sampling using DGT also indicated little difference between Brown Bay and O'Brien Bay for many metals (Cd, Al, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu), however, greater amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe and As were accumulated in DGT probes deployed in Brown Bay compared with O'Brien Bay, and a higher accumulation of Sn was observed in Brown Bay inner than any of the other three sites sampled. Comparison of DGT derived porewater concentrations with actual porewater concentrations showed limited resupply of Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As from the solid phase to porewater, with these metals appearing to be strongly bound to the sediment, however, resupply of Fe and Sn was apparent. Based upon our observations here, we suggest that Sn, and to a lesser extent Pb, are critical contaminants.