Bacterial pneumonia in the AIDS patients.West Afr J Med. 2006 Jan-Mar; 25(1):1-5.WA
To determine the incidence, microbiological pattern and prognostic factor of bacterial pneumonia in AIDS patients.
Prospective study of AIDS patients from July 2001 to Dec 2002.
Adults AIDS patients on HAART drugs that develop acute fever, cough with bronchial breathing or lung crepitations had diagnostic evaluation that included chest x-ray, paired sputum microscopy, culture and sensitivity, paired blood culture and haematological profiles including CD4' cell count.
Twenty-one patients (22.6%), 9 males and 12 females developed community acquired pneumonia during this 16-month period. Pneumonia was confirmed in 9 patients (42.9%), presumed in 4 (19%) and probable in 8 (38%). Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 22% of the cases when immunity was less impaired. Staplhylococcus aureus accounted for another 22 % while Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeraginosa and Escherichial coli were isolated in 11% each when immunity was severely compromised. Fifteen patients (71.4%) were successfully treated with routine antibiotics. Six cases (28.6%) died. All had anaemia, leucopoenia and low CD4 cell count. Four (66.7%) of this had positive bacterial culture with bacteremia in three of them.
Bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients has similar presentation to that in the general population, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacilli especially Klebsiella pneumoniae were seen in a good proportion of the cases. Outcome of treatment was poor in the presence of positive bacterial culture, anemia, leucopoenia and very low CD4+ lymphocytes.