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The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design.
Psychol Med. 2006 Aug; 36(8):1153-62.PM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD) are highly co-morbid, their causal relationship is unclear. In this longitudinal study, we used a genetically informative population-based twin sample to examine the age-at-onset distributions and the temporal relationship of AD and MD.

METHOD

Our sample included 7477 twins, whose diagnoses of AD and MD and age-at-onset information were obtained from structured interviews. Individual-level survival analyses were conducted based on 2603 monozygotic (MZ) twins, and co-twin diagnosis was included in models as an index of familiar liability to AD and MD.

RESULTS

The age-at-onset distributions of AD and MD differed substantially. Most onsets of AD were in young adulthood, whereas MD had a flatter distribution across age. Most subjects, especially women, had an onset of MD preceding AD. Prior MD significantly affected risk for developing AD, and this risk decreased over time. By contrast, preceding AD had negligible effects on the risk for future MD. Familial risk was transmitted within disorders but there was little evidence of additional familial liability shared across disorders.

CONCLUSIONS

Risk for developing AD was substantially increased by a prior episode of MD. The association was only partially accounted for by familial factors, providing support for a direct causal effect such as self-medication. The etiologic path from AD to MD was insignificant.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA. pkuo@vcu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Twin Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16734951

Citation

Kuo, Po-Hsiu, et al. "The Temporal Relationship of the Onsets of Alcohol Dependence and Major Depression: Using a Genetically Informative Study Design." Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 8, 2006, pp. 1153-62.
Kuo PH, Gardner CO, Kendler KS, et al. The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design. Psychol Med. 2006;36(8):1153-62.
Kuo, P. H., Gardner, C. O., Kendler, K. S., & Prescott, C. A. (2006). The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design. Psychological Medicine, 36(8), 1153-62.
Kuo PH, et al. The Temporal Relationship of the Onsets of Alcohol Dependence and Major Depression: Using a Genetically Informative Study Design. Psychol Med. 2006;36(8):1153-62. PubMed PMID: 16734951.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design. AU - Kuo,Po-Hsiu, AU - Gardner,Charles O, AU - Kendler,Kenneth S, AU - Prescott,Carol A, Y1 - 2006/05/31/ PY - 2006/6/1/pubmed PY - 2006/12/23/medline PY - 2006/6/1/entrez SP - 1153 EP - 62 JF - Psychological medicine JO - Psychol Med VL - 36 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD) are highly co-morbid, their causal relationship is unclear. In this longitudinal study, we used a genetically informative population-based twin sample to examine the age-at-onset distributions and the temporal relationship of AD and MD. METHOD: Our sample included 7477 twins, whose diagnoses of AD and MD and age-at-onset information were obtained from structured interviews. Individual-level survival analyses were conducted based on 2603 monozygotic (MZ) twins, and co-twin diagnosis was included in models as an index of familiar liability to AD and MD. RESULTS: The age-at-onset distributions of AD and MD differed substantially. Most onsets of AD were in young adulthood, whereas MD had a flatter distribution across age. Most subjects, especially women, had an onset of MD preceding AD. Prior MD significantly affected risk for developing AD, and this risk decreased over time. By contrast, preceding AD had negligible effects on the risk for future MD. Familial risk was transmitted within disorders but there was little evidence of additional familial liability shared across disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for developing AD was substantially increased by a prior episode of MD. The association was only partially accounted for by familial factors, providing support for a direct causal effect such as self-medication. The etiologic path from AD to MD was insignificant. SN - 0033-2917 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16734951/The_temporal_relationship_of_the_onsets_of_alcohol_dependence_and_major_depression:_using_a_genetically_informative_study_design_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033291706007860/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -