[Phylogenetic diversity and cold-adaptive hydrolytic enzymes of culturable psychrophilic bacteria associated with sea ice from high latitude ocean, Artic].Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 Apr; 46(2):184-90.WS
The phylogenetic diversity of culturable psychrophilic bacteria associated with sea ice from high latitude sea (77 degrees 30'N - 81 degrees 12'N), Canadian Basin and Greenland sea Arctic, was investigated. A total of 37 psychrophilic strains were isolated using three different methods of (i) spread plate method: 100 microL of each dilution ice-melt sample was spreaded onto the surface of Marine 2216 agar (DIFCO laboratories, Detroit, MI) and incubated for 2 to 6 weeks at 4 degrees C; (ii) bath culture and spread plate method: 1 mL of sample was added to 9mL of NSW (unamended natural seawater, 0.2 microm prefiltered and autoclaved) and incubated for 1 months at - 1 degrees C, then spread plate method was used to isolate bacterial strains from the pre-cultured samples; (iii) cold shock, bath culture and spread plate method: samples were exposed to - 20 degrees C for 24h, then bacterial strains isolated by bath culture and spread plate method under aerobic conditions. Nearly half of psychrophilic strains are isolated by using method iii . 16S rDNA nearly full-length sequence analysis reveal that psychrophilic strains fall in two phylogenetic divisions, gamma-proteobacteria (in the genera Colwellia, Marinobacter, Shewanella, Thalassomonas, Glaciecola, Marinomonas and Pseudoalteromonas) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (in the genera Flavobacterium and Psychroflexus). Nine of bacterial isolates (BSi20007, BSi20497, BSi20517, BSi20537, BSi20170, BSi20001, BSi20002, BSi20675 and BSi20101) quite likely represent novel species (16S rDNA sequence similarity below 97%). One of strains (BSi20002) from Canadian Basin shows 100% sequence similarity to the Antarctic Weddell sea ice isolate Marinobacter sp. ANT8277, suggesting bacteria may have a bipolar distribution at the species level. AF283859 sequences were submitted to the BLAST search program of the National Center for Biotechnology Information website (NCBI, http://www. ncbi. nlm.nih. gov). Twenty sequences showing 100% similarity each other are retrieved from the database, eleven from Antarctic seawater bacteria, three from Antarctic sea-ice bacteria, one from Spitzbergen sea-ice bacteria, two from Chukchi Sea sea-ice bacteria, two from Canadian Basin sea-ice bacteria (in this study) and one from uncultured bacterium clone PDA-OTU11 associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis from the Great Barrier Reef. These may indicate that the physiological and geographic barriers appear to be permeable and some bacterial species can survive in different environment. The majority of the bacterial strains are able to secrete diversity cold-adaptive hydrolytic enzymes into the medium at 4 degrees C. The isolates that are able to degrade Tween-80, glutin, and starch account for, respectively, 62.6%, 51.4% and 40.5%.