Empiric first-line antibiotic treatment of acute otitis in the era of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Pediatrics 2006; 117(6):e1087-94Ped
Our goal was to estimate the local prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae nonsusceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin after widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine and to revise community-specific recommendations for first-line antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media.
We conducted serial prevalence surveys between 2000 and 2004 in the offices of community pediatricians in St Louis, Missouri. Study participants were children <7 years of age with acute upper respiratory infections. Children treated with an antibiotic in the past 4 weeks were excluded. S pneumoniae was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs using standard techniques. Isolates with a penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration >2 microg/mL were considered to be S pneumoniae nonsusceptible to amoxicillin.
There were 327 patients enrolled in the study. Between 2000 and 2004, vaccine coverage with > or =3 doses of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine increased from 0% to 54%, but nasopharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae was stable at 39%. The prevalence of S pneumoniae nonsusceptible to penicillin fell from 25% to 12% among patients, did not vary if <2 years of age, was reduced in children with > or =3 doses of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine, and increased in child care attendees but reduced in attendees who had > or =3 doses of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine. The prevalence of S pneumoniae nonsusceptible to amoxicillin in patients remained <5%.
In our community, widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine has reduced the prevalence of S pneumoniae nonsusceptible to penicillin, and the prevalence of S pneumoniae nonsusceptible to amoxicillin remains low (<5%). If antibiotic treatment is elected for children with uncomplicated acute otitis media, we recommend treatment with standard-dose amoxicillin (40-45 mg/kg per day) for children with > or =3 doses of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine, regardless of age and child care status. High-dose amoxicillin should be used for children with <3 doses of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine and those treated recently with an antibiotic.