Chemical composition and sources of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols in Guangzhou, China.Environ Monit Assess 2006; 119(1-3):425-39EM
Aerosol samples of PM10 and PM2.5 are collected in summertime at four monitoring sites in Guangzhou, China. The concentrations of organic and elemental carbons (OC/EC), inorganic ions, and elements in PM10 and PM2.5 are also quantified. Our study aims to: (1) characterize the particulate concentrations and associated chemical species in urban atmosphere (2) identify the potential sources and estimate their apportionment. The results show that average concentration of PM2.5 (97.54 microg m(-3)) in Guangzhou significantly exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) 24-h average of 65 microg m(-3). OC, EC, Sulfate, ammonium, K, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd and Se are mainly in PM2.5 fraction of particles, while chloride, nitrate, Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn are mainly in PM2.5-10 fraction. The major components such as sulfate, OC and EC account for about 70-90% of the particulate mass. Enrichment factors (EF) for elements are calculated to indicate that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) are highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Ambient and source data are used in the multi-variable linearly regression analysis for source identification and apportionment, indicating that major sources and their apportionments of ambient particulate aerosols in Guangzhou are vehicle exhaust by 38.4% and coal combustion by 26.0%, respectively.