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Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water.
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 May 15; 40(10):3384-7.ES

Abstract

Many water districts have recently shifted from free chlorine (in the form of HOCl/OCl-) to monochloramine (NH2-Cl) as a disinfectant for drinking water to lower the concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon byproducts in the water. There is concern that the use of NH2Cl disinfectant may lead to higher Pb levels in drinking water. In this study, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to compare the effects of these two disinfectants on the dissolution of Pb films. A 0.5 microm thick Pb film nearly completely dissolves in a NH2Cl solution, but it is passivated in a HOCl/OCl- solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the NH2Cl oxidizes Pb to Pb(II) species such as Pb3-(OH)2(CO3)2, whereas the stronger oxidant, HOCl/OCl-, oxidizes Pb to Pb(IV) as an insoluble PbO2 conversion coating. Although NH2Cl may produce less halogenated organic byproducts than HOCl/OCl- when used as a disinfectant, it may lead to increased Pb levels in drinking water.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry and Graduate Center for Materials Research, University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri 65409-1170, USA. jswitzer@umr.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16749710

Citation

Switzer, Jay A., et al. "Evidence That Monochloramine Disinfectant Could Lead to Elevated Pb Levels in Drinking Water." Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40, no. 10, 2006, pp. 3384-7.
Switzer JA, Rajasekharan VV, Boonsalee S, et al. Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40(10):3384-7.
Switzer, J. A., Rajasekharan, V. V., Boonsalee, S., Kulp, E. A., & Bohannan, E. W. (2006). Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water. Environmental Science & Technology, 40(10), 3384-7.
Switzer JA, et al. Evidence That Monochloramine Disinfectant Could Lead to Elevated Pb Levels in Drinking Water. Environ Sci Technol. 2006 May 15;40(10):3384-7. PubMed PMID: 16749710.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water. AU - Switzer,Jay A, AU - Rajasekharan,Vishnu V, AU - Boonsalee,Sansanee, AU - Kulp,Elizabeth A, AU - Bohannan,Eric W, PY - 2006/6/6/pubmed PY - 2006/10/4/medline PY - 2006/6/6/entrez SP - 3384 EP - 7 JF - Environmental science & technology JO - Environ Sci Technol VL - 40 IS - 10 N2 - Many water districts have recently shifted from free chlorine (in the form of HOCl/OCl-) to monochloramine (NH2-Cl) as a disinfectant for drinking water to lower the concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon byproducts in the water. There is concern that the use of NH2Cl disinfectant may lead to higher Pb levels in drinking water. In this study, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to compare the effects of these two disinfectants on the dissolution of Pb films. A 0.5 microm thick Pb film nearly completely dissolves in a NH2Cl solution, but it is passivated in a HOCl/OCl- solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the NH2Cl oxidizes Pb to Pb(II) species such as Pb3-(OH)2(CO3)2, whereas the stronger oxidant, HOCl/OCl-, oxidizes Pb to Pb(IV) as an insoluble PbO2 conversion coating. Although NH2Cl may produce less halogenated organic byproducts than HOCl/OCl- when used as a disinfectant, it may lead to increased Pb levels in drinking water. SN - 0013-936X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16749710/Evidence_that_monochloramine_disinfectant_could_lead_to_elevated_Pb_levels_in_drinking_water_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -