Photocycle and photoreversal of photoactive yellow protein at alkaline pH: kinetics, intermediates, and equilibria.Biochemistry. 2006 Jun 13; 45(23):7057-68.B
Since the habitat of Halorhodospira halophila is distinctly alkaline, we investigated the kinetics and intermediates of the photocycle and photoreversal of the photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from pH 8 to 11. SVD analysis of the transient absorption time traces in a broad wavelength range (330-510 nm) shows the presence of three spectrally distinct species (I1, I1', and I2') at pH 10. The spectrum of I1' was obtained in two different ways. The maximal absorption is at 425 nm. I1' probably has a deprotonated chromophore and may be regarded as the alkaline form of I2'. At pH 10, the I1 intermediate decays in approximately 330 micros in part to I1' before I1 and I1' decay further to I2' in approximately 1 ms. From the rise of I2' (approximately 1 ms) to the end of the photocycle, the three intermediates (I1, I1', and I2') remain in equilibrium and decay together to P in approximately 830 ms. Assuming that the spectra of I1, I1', and I2' are pH-independent, their time courses were determined. On the millisecond to second time scale, they are in a pH-dependent equilibrium with a pKa of approximately 9.9. With an increase in pH, the I1 and I1' populations increase at the expense of the amount of I2'. The apparent rate constant for the recovery of P slows with an increase in pH with a pKa of approximately 9.7. The equal pH dependence of this rate and the equilibrium concentrations follows, if we assume that the equilibration rates between the intermediates are much faster than the recovery rate and that the recovery occurs from I2'. The pKa of approximately 9.9 is assigned to the deprotonation of the phenol of the surface-exposed chromophore in the I1'-I2' equilibrium. The I1-I1' equilibrium is pH-independent. Photoreversal experiments at pH 10 with the second flash at 355 nm indicate the presence of only one I2-like intermediate, which we assign on the basis of its lambda(max) value to I2'. After the rapid unresolved photoisomerization to I2'(trans), the reversal pathway back to P involves two sequential steps (60 micros and 3 ms). The amplitude spectra show that I1'(trans) and I1(trans) intermediates participate in this reversal.