Effect of flash release treatment on phenolic extraction and wine composition.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jun 14; 54(12):4270-6.JA
The flash release (FR) process, consisting of rapidly heating the grapes and then applying strong vacuum, has been proposed to increase the polyphenol content of red wines. Its impact on polyphenol extraction kinetics and on the polyphenol composition of red juice and wines was studied over two seasons on different grape varieties (Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan). The FR process allows fast extraction of all phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins) and can be used to produce polyphenol-enriched grape juices. However, the concentration of all polyphenols dramatically decreased throughout fermentation when pressing was achieved immediately after FR. The FR wines made with pomace maceration were also enriched in polyphenols compared to the corresponding control wines. Increasing the duration of high-temperature exposure in the FR treatment further increased extraction of phenolic compounds but also accelerated their conversion to derived species. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase, higher after FR than in the control, and even higher after longer heating. FR resulted in an increased tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio and an increased conversion of anthocyanins to tannin-anthocyanin adducts showing the same color properties as anthocyanins. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase that also contained larger amounts of orange sulfite bleaching-resistant pigments.