Impact of different saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol containing diets on beta-amyloid accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.Neurobiol Dis 2006; 23(3):563-72ND
The present study assessed the influence of dietary lipids on accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the brain. Seven experimental diets with varying n-6/n-3-ratio, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol contents were fed to transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice for 3-4 months beginning at a young adult age (6 months). Hippocampal Abeta levels were determined with ELISA and plaque load by using immunocytochemistry. A typical Western diet with 40% saturated fatty acids and 1% of cholesterol increased, while diets supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased Abeta levels compared to regular (soy oil based) diet. DHA diet also decreased the number of activated microglia in hippocampus and increased exploratory activity of transgenic mice, but did not improve their spatial learning in the water maze. The favorable effect of DHA on Abeta production was verified in two different cell lines. Regulation of dietary lipid intake may offer a new tool to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease at the population level.