Comparison of the effect of hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol on the intraocular pressure in healthy normotensive dogs and the effect of hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch on the intraocular pressure in dogs with primary glaucoma.Vet Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 9(4):239-44.VO
The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch (7.5%/6%) (HES) could decrease the intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy normotensive dogs, and compare its effect with that of mannitol (20%) (experimental study). In addition, the potential IOP-lowering effect of hypertonic HES was evaluated in six dogs with primary glaucoma (clinical study).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Experimental study: eight male ophthalmoscopically and clinically healthy Beagles were included in this study. The IOP of each dog was measured by applanation tonometry in both eyes to obtain control values at 10:00, 10:15, 10:30, 10:45, 11:00 a.m., and then every hour until 6:00 p.m. prior to the first treatment (control period). Each dog received, with at least 2-week intervals and in a random order, an intravenous (IV) infusion of 4 mL/kg hypertonic HES (1.2 g/kg NaCl; 0.96 g/kg HES) and 4 mL/kg mannitol 20% (1 g/kg) over a period of 15 min starting at 10:00 a.m. IOP was measured oculus uterque (OU) at the same time intervals as in the control study. The differences in IOP between the treatment groups and the baseline IOP (before the start of infusion), between oculus sinister (OS) and oculus dexter (OD) and between the same time points of all groups were determined with a Student's t-test for paired samples (P = 0.05). Clinical study: six dogs with primary glaucoma (representing seven eyes) received an IV infusion of 4 mL/kg hypertonic HES over a period of 15 min. IOP was measured before and 15 and 30 min after starting the infusion.
Experimental study: no significant difference between IOP of both eyes was found. A significant decrease in IOP from baseline value was recorded at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the start of mannitol infusion (mean amplitude in IOP decrease 3.21 mmHg; P < 0.05) and at 15 and 30 min in dogs treated with HES (mean amplitude in IOP decrease 2.43 mmHg; P < 0.05). At 120 and 180 min there was a significantly higher IOP (P < 0.05) in HES treatment group compared to the values of the control group. Clinical study: in 5/7 eyes diagnosed with primary glaucoma a maximum decrease in IOP of an average of 24% from the baseline value (IOP before start of the infusion) was observed (range of decrease 2-21 mmHg). In three of these five cases the maximum decrease was reached at 15 min and in two cases at 30 min. In one case an increase in IOP of 35% (+ 18 mmHg) was seen after 15 min and 26% (+ 13 mmHg) after 30 min. Case 4 showed an increase in IOP of 5% (+ 3 mmHg) after 15 min and a decrease of 6% (- 4 mmHg) after 30 min.
Intravenous hypertonic HES is comparable to intravenous mannitol 20% in lowering the intraocular pressure in healthy normotensive dogs. But this effect lasted half an hour longer after mannitol. In 6/7 eyes with primary glaucoma, hypertonic HES decreased IOP.