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Vascular risk factors for incident Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: the Cache County study.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006 Apr-Jun; 20(2):93-100AD

Abstract

Vascular risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) have been evaluated; however, few studies have compared risks by dementia subtypes and sex. We evaluated relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and obesity), events (stroke, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and myocardial infarction), and subsequent risk of AD and VaD by sex in a community-based cohort of 3264 Cache County residents aged 65 or older. Cardiovascular history was ascertained by self-report or proxy-report in detailed interviews. AD and VaD were diagnosed using standard criteria. Estimates from discrete-time survival models showed no association between self-reported history of hypertension and high cholesterol and AD after adjustments. Hypertension increased the risk of VaD [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-7.44]. Obesity increased the risk of AD in females (aHR 2.23, 95% CI 1.09-4.30) but not males. Diabetes increased the risk of VaD in females after adjustments (aHR 3.33, 95% CI 1.03-9.78) but not males. The risk of VaD after stroke was increased in females (aHR 16.90, 95% CI 5.58-49.03) and males (aHR 10.95, 95% CI 2.48-44.78). The results indicate that vascular factors increase risks for AD and VaD differentially by sex. Future studies should focus on specific causal pathways for each of these factors with regard to sex to determine if sex differences in the prevalence of vascular factors have an influence on sex differences in dementia risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA. khayden@duke.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16772744

Citation

Hayden, Kathleen M., et al. "Vascular Risk Factors for Incident Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia: the Cache County Study." Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 20, no. 2, 2006, pp. 93-100.
Hayden KM, Zandi PP, Lyketsos CG, et al. Vascular risk factors for incident Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: the Cache County study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2006;20(2):93-100.
Hayden, K. M., Zandi, P. P., Lyketsos, C. G., Khachaturian, A. S., Bastian, L. A., Charoonruk, G., ... Welsh-Bohmer, K. A. (2006). Vascular risk factors for incident Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: the Cache County study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20(2), pp. 93-100.
Hayden KM, et al. Vascular Risk Factors for Incident Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia: the Cache County Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2006;20(2):93-100. PubMed PMID: 16772744.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vascular risk factors for incident Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: the Cache County study. AU - Hayden,Kathleen M, AU - Zandi,Peter P, AU - Lyketsos,Constantine G, AU - Khachaturian,Ara S, AU - Bastian,Lori A, AU - Charoonruk,Gene, AU - Tschanz,JoAnn T, AU - Norton,Maria C, AU - Pieper,Carl F, AU - Munger,Ron G, AU - Breitner,John C S, AU - Welsh-Bohmer,Kathleen A, AU - ,, PY - 2006/6/15/pubmed PY - 2006/9/29/medline PY - 2006/6/15/entrez SP - 93 EP - 100 JF - Alzheimer disease and associated disorders JO - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord VL - 20 IS - 2 N2 - Vascular risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) have been evaluated; however, few studies have compared risks by dementia subtypes and sex. We evaluated relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and obesity), events (stroke, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and myocardial infarction), and subsequent risk of AD and VaD by sex in a community-based cohort of 3264 Cache County residents aged 65 or older. Cardiovascular history was ascertained by self-report or proxy-report in detailed interviews. AD and VaD were diagnosed using standard criteria. Estimates from discrete-time survival models showed no association between self-reported history of hypertension and high cholesterol and AD after adjustments. Hypertension increased the risk of VaD [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-7.44]. Obesity increased the risk of AD in females (aHR 2.23, 95% CI 1.09-4.30) but not males. Diabetes increased the risk of VaD in females after adjustments (aHR 3.33, 95% CI 1.03-9.78) but not males. The risk of VaD after stroke was increased in females (aHR 16.90, 95% CI 5.58-49.03) and males (aHR 10.95, 95% CI 2.48-44.78). The results indicate that vascular factors increase risks for AD and VaD differentially by sex. Future studies should focus on specific causal pathways for each of these factors with regard to sex to determine if sex differences in the prevalence of vascular factors have an influence on sex differences in dementia risk. SN - 0893-0341 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16772744/Vascular_risk_factors_for_incident_Alzheimer_disease_and_vascular_dementia:_the_Cache_County_study_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.wad.0000213814.43047.86 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -