Induction and activity of oxidative stress-related proteins during waterborne Cu-exposure in brown trout (Salmo trutta).Chemosphere. 2006 Dec; 65(10):1707-14.C
Induction of gene transcription for proteins and enzymes involved in metal-mediated oxidative stress were studied in brown trout transferred to a Cu-contaminated river in the Røros region in Central Norway. In addition to metallothionein (MT-A), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) gene transcription, protein levels of MT and enzyme activities of SOD and CAT were analyzed in gill, liver and kidney. MT-A, SOD and GR transcription increased significantly along with uptake of Cu in gills, while only transcription of MT-A was found to respond in liver and kidney during the exposure. Already present MT proteins in gills seemed to be oxidized during the exposure, probably caused by Cu-mediated oxidative stress, and no increase in MT protein levels were observed in gills. SOD and CAT enzyme levels were affected in all tissues during the exposure. A negative correlation between SOD and CAT activities was observed in gills, and we suggest that the activities of these enzymes were influenced not only through transcription. GPx and GR transcription levels correlated positively with each other in gills and liver, indicating their shared function in GSH-turnover. Levels of MT and activity of SOD and CAT dealing with metal-induced oxidative stress appear to be regulated not only through gene transcription, but also through post-translational mechanisms.