Endoscopic approaches to enteral nutritional support.Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006; 20(3):605-30.BP
Enteral is preferred to parenteral nutritional support for acute and chronic diseases because it is more physiological and associated with fewer infection complications. Nasal tube feedings are generally used for 30 days or less and percutaneous access for the longer-term. Feeding by naso-gastric tubes is appropriate for most critically ill patients. However, trans-pyloric feeding is indicated for those with regurgitation and aspiration of gastric feeds. Deep naso-jejunal tube feeding is appropriate for patients with severe acute pancreatitis. There are several methods for endoscopic placement of naso-enteric tubes. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is used for most persons requiring long-term support. Long-term jejunal feeding is most often used for persons with chronic aspiration of gastric feeds, chronic pancreatitis intolerant to eating, or persons in need of concomitant gastric decompression. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal tube extension is fraught with tube dysfunction and dislocation. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tubes may be more robust, but are less commonly performed.