Surgical pathology of gastrinoma. Site, size, multicentricity, association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and malignancy.Cancer. 1991 Sep 15; 68(6):1329-34.C
Specimens from the pancreas and duodenum of 26 patients with sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and 18 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and hypergastrinemia (17 with ZES) were screened immunocytochemically for gastrinomas. Location, size, multicentricity, and malignancy of the gastrinomas were evaluated. The MEN-1 patients had gastrinomas in the duodenum (nine of 18), pancreas (one of 18), and periduodenal lymph nodes (two of 18). No gastrinoma was identified in six patients. Most duodenal gastrinomas were multiple (five of nine) and smaller than 0.6 cm (six of nine). Lymph node metastases were present in eight of 12 patients. All 26 patients with sporadic ZES had a solitary gastrinoma; 14 were found in the pancreas and had a diameter greater than 2 cm. Ten patients had a duodenal gastrinoma, two with a diameter less than 0.6 cm. In two patients, only periduodenal "lymph node gastrinomas" were detected. Eighteen of the sporadic gastrinomas were malignant. These results suggest that duodenal location and multicentricity of gastrinomas are associated with the MEN-1 syndrome, and solitary gastrinomas, either in the pancreas or the duodenum, are predominantly seen in sporadic ZES.