Staurosporine induces protein kinase C agonist effects and maturation of normal and neoplastic mouse keratinocytes in vitro.Cancer Res. 1991 Sep 01; 51(17):4677-84.CR
Staurosporine is a potent but nonselective inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) and blocks responses to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in several cell types in vitro. In cultured primary mouse keratinocytes, however, staurosporine fails to inhibit TPA-mediated keratinocyte maturation and itself elicits responses that are similar to TPA (T. Sako et al., Cancer Res., 48: 4646-4650, 1988). After exposure to 10 nM staurosporine for 24 h, essentially all keratinocytes undergo morphological differentiation, whereas 160 nM TPA induces this response in about 50% of epidermal cells. These concentrations of staurosporine and TPA cause a 4-5-fold induction of epidermal transglutaminase activity and cornified envelopes, both markers of the terminal stage of keratinocyte differentiation. Staurosporine, but not TPA, also induces morphological and biochemical maturation in 2 neoplastic mouse keratinocyte cell lines, 308 and SP-1. The ability of staurosporine to elicit the same responses as TPA suggested that it may be functioning paradoxically as a PKC agonist in intact keratinocytes. In support of this hypothesis, staurosporine induces ornithine decarboxylase activity, inhibits 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor binding, and induces expression of c-fos mRNA. Down-regulation of PKC by pretreatment of primary keratinocytes with 60 nM bryostatin partially blocks staurosporine-mediated induction of cornified envelopes and inhibition of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor binding, implicating PKC in these responses. The ability of staurosporine to mimic and/or enhance certain responses to TPA suggests that this agent is acting as a functional PKC agonist in cultured keratinocytes.