Protocatechuic acid suppresses MPP+ -induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells.Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Oct; 44(10):1659-66.FC
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the kernels of Alpinia (A.) oxyphylla, showed antioxidant neuroprotective effect in our previous study. Here, we investigated the effect of PCA on the MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. The apoptosis in MPP(+)-induced PC12 cells was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), GSH depletion, activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with PCA significantly prevented the above-mentioned mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data pointed to the potential clinical application/use of PCA to overcome neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.