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CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal.
Sleep Med Rev. 2006 Aug; 10(4):267-85.SM

Abstract

Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the <1Hz oscillation) and fast arousals (ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16809057

Citation

Parrino, Liborio, et al. "CAP, Epilepsy and Motor Events During Sleep: the Unifying Role of Arousal." Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 10, no. 4, 2006, pp. 267-85.
Parrino L, Halasz P, Tassinari CA, et al. CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10(4):267-85.
Parrino, L., Halasz, P., Tassinari, C. A., & Terzano, M. G. (2006). CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(4), 267-85.
Parrino L, et al. CAP, Epilepsy and Motor Events During Sleep: the Unifying Role of Arousal. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10(4):267-85. PubMed PMID: 16809057.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal. AU - Parrino,Liborio, AU - Halasz,Peter, AU - Tassinari,Carlo Alberto, AU - Terzano,Mario Giovanni, Y1 - 2006/06/30/ PY - 2006/7/1/pubmed PY - 2007/1/11/medline PY - 2006/7/1/entrez SP - 267 EP - 85 JF - Sleep medicine reviews JO - Sleep Med Rev VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the <1Hz oscillation) and fast arousals (ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena. SN - 1087-0792 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16809057/CAP_epilepsy_and_motor_events_during_sleep:_the_unifying_role_of_arousal_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1087-0792(05)00144-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -