Epidemiology of kidney stones in Iceland: a population-based study.Scand J Urol Nephrol 2006; 40(3):215-20SJ
The prevalence of kidney stones varies greatly between ethnic groups and geographic locations, ranging from 8% to 19% in males and from 3% to 5% in females in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of kidney stones in Iceland.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Data were derived from the Reykjavik Study, a population-based cohort study carried out between 1967 and 1991. All subjects answered a thorough questionnaire concerning their medical history at each visit. The lifetime prevalence of kidney stones was calculated based on the answer to the question "Have you ever been diagnosed with a kidney stone?" at each person's first visit. Incidence was calculated based on answers from subjects who had made two or more visits. Prevalence and incidence were age-standardized to the truncated world population. Family history of kidney stones was also evaluated.
A total of 9039 men aged 33-80 years and 9619 women aged 33-81 years participated. Of these, 423 males and 307 females had a history of kidney stones (p=0.001). Prevalence increased significantly with age for both genders. Men aged 30-34 years had a prevalence of 2.9%, compared to 8.8% for those aged 65-69 years, whereas corresponding values for women were 2.5% and 5.0%. The age-standardized prevalence for the 30-79 years age group was 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. No significant increase in prevalence was observed over time. The incidence was 562 per 100 000 per year among men and increased significantly with age. The incidence among women was 197 per 100 000 per year and did not differ between age groups. A family history of nephrolithiasis was present in 25% of subjects with a history of kidney stones, and in 4% of those without.
The incidence and prevalence of kidney stones in Icelandic women are similar to those that have been reported in other Western countries. The prevalence among men is lower that in neighboring countries but the incidence is similar. A strong family history of kidney stones suggests a genetic predisposition.