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The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development.
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jul; 163(7):1239-44.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The authors describe personality development and disorders in relation to symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders.

METHOD

Consecutive adults referred for neuropsychiatric investigation (N=240) were assessed for current and lifetime ADHD and autism spectrum disorders and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. In a subgroup of subjects (N=174), presence of axis II personality disorders was also assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II).

RESULTS

Patients with ADHD reported high novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. Patients with autism spectrum disorders reported low novelty seeking, low reward dependence, and high harm avoidance. Character scores (self-directedness and cooperativeness) were extremely low among subjects with neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating a high overall prevalence of personality disorders, which was confirmed with the SCID-II. Cluster B personality disorders were more common in subjects with ADHD, while cluster A and C disorders were more common in those with autism spectrum disorders. The overlap between DSM-IV personality disorder categories was high, and they seem less clinically useful in this context.

CONCLUSIONS

ADHD and autism spectrum disorders are associated with specific temperament configurations and an increased risk of personality disorders and deficits in character maturation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Malmö University Hospital, Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sege Park 8A, S-205 02 Malmö, Sweden. henrik.anckarsater@skane.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16816230

Citation

Anckarsäter, Henrik, et al. "The Impact of ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders On Temperament, Character, and Personality Development." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 7, 2006, pp. 1239-44.
Anckarsäter H, Stahlberg O, Larson T, et al. The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(7):1239-44.
Anckarsäter, H., Stahlberg, O., Larson, T., Hakansson, C., Jutblad, S. B., Niklasson, L., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Westergren, S., Cloninger, C. R., Gillberg, C., & Rastam, M. (2006). The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(7), 1239-44.
Anckarsäter H, et al. The Impact of ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders On Temperament, Character, and Personality Development. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(7):1239-44. PubMed PMID: 16816230.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. AU - Anckarsäter,Henrik, AU - Stahlberg,Ola, AU - Larson,Tomas, AU - Hakansson,Catrin, AU - Jutblad,Sig-Britt, AU - Niklasson,Lena, AU - Nydén,Agneta, AU - Wentz,Elisabet, AU - Westergren,Stefan, AU - Cloninger,C Robert, AU - Gillberg,Christopher, AU - Rastam,Maria, PY - 2006/7/4/pubmed PY - 2006/8/11/medline PY - 2006/7/4/entrez SP - 1239 EP - 44 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 163 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The authors describe personality development and disorders in relation to symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders. METHOD: Consecutive adults referred for neuropsychiatric investigation (N=240) were assessed for current and lifetime ADHD and autism spectrum disorders and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. In a subgroup of subjects (N=174), presence of axis II personality disorders was also assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). RESULTS: Patients with ADHD reported high novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. Patients with autism spectrum disorders reported low novelty seeking, low reward dependence, and high harm avoidance. Character scores (self-directedness and cooperativeness) were extremely low among subjects with neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating a high overall prevalence of personality disorders, which was confirmed with the SCID-II. Cluster B personality disorders were more common in subjects with ADHD, while cluster A and C disorders were more common in those with autism spectrum disorders. The overlap between DSM-IV personality disorder categories was high, and they seem less clinically useful in this context. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD and autism spectrum disorders are associated with specific temperament configurations and an increased risk of personality disorders and deficits in character maturation. SN - 0002-953X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16816230/The_impact_of_ADHD_and_autism_spectrum_disorders_on_temperament_character_and_personality_development_ L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1239?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -