The management of conditioned nutritional requirements in heart failure.Heart Fail Rev. 2006 Mar; 11(1):75-82.HF
Patients suffering from congestive heart failure exhibit impaired myocardial energy production, myocyte calcium overload and increased oxidative stress. Nutritional factors known to be important for myocardial energy production, calcium homeostasis and the reduction of oxidative stress, such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, creatine and taurine are reduced in this patient population. Furthermore, deficiencies of taurine, carnitine, and thiamine are established primary causes of dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies in animals and limited trials in humans have shown that dietary replacement of some of these compounds in heart failure can significantly restore depleted levels and may result in improvement in myocardial structure and function as well as exercise capacity. Larger scale studies examining micronutrient depletion in heart failure patients, and the benefits of dietary replacement need to be performed. At the present time, it is our belief that these conditioned nutritional requirements, if unsatisfied, contribute to myocyte dysfunction and loss; thus, restoration of nutritional deficiencies should be part of the overall therapeutic strategy for patients with congestive heart failure.