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Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians.

Abstract

In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130.

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Source

MeSH

Caffeine
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Culture
Ecuador
Emetics
Humans
Indians, South American
Male
Peru
Plant Extracts
Xanthines

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1682531

Citation

TY - JOUR T1 - Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians. AU - Lewis,W H, AU - Kennelly,E J, AU - Bass,G N, AU - Wedner,H J, AU - Elvin-Lewis,M P, AU - Fast,D, PY - 1991/5/1/pubmed PY - 1991/5/1/medline PY - 1991/5/1/entrez SP - 25 EP - 30 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 33 IS - 1-2 N2 - In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds. SN - 0378-8741 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1682531/Ritualistic_use_of_the_holly_Ilex_guayusa_by_Amazonian_Jívaro_Indians_ L2 - http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=1682531 ER -