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n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review.
Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(1):5-17AJ

Abstract

Studies on the relation between dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular disease vary in quality, and the results are inconsistent. A systematic review of the literature on the effects of n-3 FAs (consumed as fish or fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid or as alpha-linolenic acid) on cardiovascular disease outcomes and adverse events was conducted. Studies from MEDLINE and other sources that were of > or =1 y in duration and that reported estimates of fish or n-3 FA intakes and cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. Secondary prevention was addressed in 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of fish-oil supplements or of diets high in n-3 FAs and in 1 prospective cohort study. Most trials reported that fish oil significantly reduced all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, cardiac and sudden death, or stroke. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease was reported in 1 RCT, in 25 prospective cohort studies, and in 7 case-control studies. No significant effect on overall deaths was reported in 3 RCTs that evaluated the effects of fish oil in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Most cohort studies reported that fish consumption was associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality and adverse cardiac outcomes. The effects on stroke were inconsistent. Evidence suggests that increased consumption of n-3 FAs from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not of alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac and sudden death, and possibly stroke. The evidence for the benefits of fish oil is stronger in secondary- than in primary-prevention settings. Adverse effects appear to be minor.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center, Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16825676

Citation

Wang, Chenchen, et al. "N-3 Fatty Acids From Fish or Fish-oil Supplements, but Not Alpha-linolenic Acid, Benefit Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Primary- and Secondary-prevention Studies: a Systematic Review." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 1, 2006, pp. 5-17.
Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, et al. N-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):5-17.
Wang, C., Harris, W. S., Chung, M., Lichtenstein, A. H., Balk, E. M., Kupelnick, B., ... Lau, J. (2006). N-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(1), pp. 5-17.
Wang C, et al. N-3 Fatty Acids From Fish or Fish-oil Supplements, but Not Alpha-linolenic Acid, Benefit Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Primary- and Secondary-prevention Studies: a Systematic Review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):5-17. PubMed PMID: 16825676.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. AU - Wang,Chenchen, AU - Harris,William S, AU - Chung,Mei, AU - Lichtenstein,Alice H, AU - Balk,Ethan M, AU - Kupelnick,Bruce, AU - Jordan,Harmon S, AU - Lau,Joseph, PY - 2006/7/11/pubmed PY - 2006/8/23/medline PY - 2006/7/11/entrez SP - 5 EP - 17 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 84 IS - 1 N2 - Studies on the relation between dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular disease vary in quality, and the results are inconsistent. A systematic review of the literature on the effects of n-3 FAs (consumed as fish or fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid or as alpha-linolenic acid) on cardiovascular disease outcomes and adverse events was conducted. Studies from MEDLINE and other sources that were of > or =1 y in duration and that reported estimates of fish or n-3 FA intakes and cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. Secondary prevention was addressed in 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of fish-oil supplements or of diets high in n-3 FAs and in 1 prospective cohort study. Most trials reported that fish oil significantly reduced all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, cardiac and sudden death, or stroke. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease was reported in 1 RCT, in 25 prospective cohort studies, and in 7 case-control studies. No significant effect on overall deaths was reported in 3 RCTs that evaluated the effects of fish oil in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Most cohort studies reported that fish consumption was associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality and adverse cardiac outcomes. The effects on stroke were inconsistent. Evidence suggests that increased consumption of n-3 FAs from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not of alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac and sudden death, and possibly stroke. The evidence for the benefits of fish oil is stronger in secondary- than in primary-prevention settings. Adverse effects appear to be minor. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16825676/n_3_Fatty_acids_from_fish_or_fish_oil_supplements_but_not_alpha_linolenic_acid_benefit_cardiovascular_disease_outcomes_in_primary__and_secondary_prevention_studies:_a_systematic_review_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/84.1.5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -