Molecular characterizations of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria and their resistance genes from mariculture waters of China.Mar Pollut Bull. 2006 Nov; 52(11):1494-503.MP
Oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria were isolated from a mariculture farm in China, and accounted for 32.23% and 5.63% of the total culturable microbes of the sea cucumber and the sea urchin rearing waters respectively. Marine vibrios, especially strains related to Vibrio splendidus or V. tasmaniensis, were the most abundant resistant isolates. For oxytetracycline resistance, tet(A), tet(B) and tet(D) genes were detected in both sea cucumber and sea urchin rearing ponds. The dominant resistance type for V. tasmaniensis-like strains was the combination of both tet(A) and tet(B) genes, while the major resistance type for V. splendidus-like strains was a single tet(D) gene. Most of the sea cucumber tet-positive isolates harbored a chloramphenicol-resistance gene, either cat IV or cat II, while only a few sea urchin tet-positive isolates harbored a cat gene, actually cat IV. The coexistence of tet and cat genes in the strains isolated from the mariculture farm studied was helpful in explaining some of the multi-resistance mechanisms.