High serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations are associated with relative cardiac sympathetic overactivity during the early morning period in type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome.Metabolism. 2006 Aug; 55(8):1014-21.M
Sympathetic activation is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cardiac autonomic activity or sympathovagal balance, as estimated by a 24-hour power spectral analysis of heart rate variation, is associated with serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a sensitive predictor for cardiovascular events, in type 2 diabetic patients with and without MS. We studied 104 type 2 diabetic patients (50 female and 54 male). The diagnosis of MS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Based on the serum hs-CRP, diabetic patients were also divided into 3 groups: low risk (CRP < 1.0 mg/L), moderate risk (1.0 < or = CRP < or = 3.0), and high risk (CRP > 3.0). Heart rate variation was determined automatically every 5 minutes over 24 hours using an ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recording. Power spectral analysis of the R-R intervals was performed by fast Fourier transformation. Low frequency (LF, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activities), high frequency (HF, pure parasympathetic activity), and the ratio of LF to HF, an index of sympathovagal balance, were used as indices of cardiac autonomic activity. Blood concentrations of hs-CRP, interleukin 6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were higher in diabetic patients with than in those without MS (P < .0001, P = .0056, and P < .0001, respectively). Both the 24-hour mean LF and the LF-to-HF ratio were also significantly higher in diabetic patients with than in those without MS (P = .0397 and P = .0483, respectively). The LF-to-HF ratio at 6:00 am was significantly higher in diabetic patients with a high CRP concentration than in those with a low or moderate CRP concentration (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively). Only urinary albumin and hs-CRP were independent factors predicting the LF-to-HF ratio at 6:00 am in diabetic patients. In conclusion, type 2 diabetic patients with MS have elevated markers of inflammation and evidence of cardiac sympathetic predominance. High serum concentrations of hs-CRP are associated with relative cardiac sympathetic overactivity during the early morning in type 2 diabetic patients.