Energy intake, diet composition, energy expenditure, and body fatness of adolescents in northern Greece.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 May; 14(5):855-62.O
The purpose of this study was to examine energy intake, energy expenditure, diet composition, and obesity of adolescents in Northern Greece.
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants. Height, weight, and skinfold thickness at two sites were measured. BMI and percentage body fat were calculated. Energy intake and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined by a 3-day weighed dietary diary. Energy expenditure was calculated based on calculated resting metabolic rate (RMR) (1) multiplied by an activity factor based on reported physical activity.
Thirty-one percent of boys and 21% of girls had BMI corresponding to >/=25 kg/m(2) at 18 years and were classified as overweight. Both overweight boys and girls reported a lower energy intake compared with their non-overweight counterparts when expressed as kilocalories per kilogram body weight. Overweight children had a higher negative energy balance. Both overweight and non-overweight adolescents had higher than recommended fat intakes. Mean daily carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake, expressed as grams per kilogram body weight, of overweight adolescents were significantly lower compared with the non-overweight adolescents. Total daily carbohydrate intake, when expressed in grams, was found to be higher for non-overweight adolescents. Both overweight boys and girls had lower iron intakes than their non-overweight counterparts. Overweight boys had statistically lower fiber and niacin intakes than non-overweight boys. Both overweight and non-overweight adolescents had lower than recommended iron intakes. Furthermore, overweight adolescents consumed more snacks (potato chips, chocolate bars, pizza, cheese pie, and cream pie), more sugar, jam, and honey, and fewer legumes, vegetables, and fruits than their non-overweight counterparts.
Reported energy intake of overweight adolescents was lower than their non-overweight counterparts. Regarding diet composition overweight subjects had significantly lower intakes of carbohydrates compared with non-overweight subjects. The food consumption pattern of overweight children showed less adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.