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Validity of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students.
J Affect Disord. 2006 Nov; 96(1-2):89-93.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The common self-rated depression scales are lengthy, old and do not reflect the current diagnostic classifications criteria of depressive disorders. This study aimed to validate the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students.

METHODS

A representative sample of university students (n=512) completed the PHQ-9 and the Beck's Depressive Inventory (BDI). They were also interviewed for clinical diagnoses of depressive disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

RESULTS

The internal consistency of questions within the PHQ-9 was 0.85. The PHQ-9 had good concurrent validity with the BDI (r=0.67, P<0.001). It also had a good (r=0.894, P<0.001) one month test-retest reliability. Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off score for minor depressive disorder is 5 (sensitivity 0.897, specificity 0.989, Positive Predictive Value - PPV 0.875, Negative Predictive Value - NPV 0.981 and Overall Correct Classification - OCC rate 0.973) while for major depressive disorder only is 10 (sensitivity 0.846, specificity 0.994, PPV 0.750, NPV 0.996 and OCC rate 0.992).

LIMITATIONS

The study limitations include use of a specific group in community, moderate sample size and screening for only minor and major depressive disorders while neglecting other depressive disorders.

CONCLUSIONS

The PHQ-9 has good psychometric properties amongst Nigerian university students. Because of its validity, reliability, brevity and ease of administration, the PHQ-9 will be a valuable tool for estimating depression amongst college students in Nigerian community. More studies are needed to test the usefulness of the translated local language versions of this instrument amongst the community in sub-Saharan Africa.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Mental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. biodunwuya@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16857265

Citation

Adewuya, Abiodun O., et al. "Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a Screening Tool for Depression Amongst Nigerian University Students." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 96, no. 1-2, 2006, pp. 89-93.
Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Afolabi OO. Validity of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. J Affect Disord. 2006;96(1-2):89-93.
Adewuya, A. O., Ola, B. A., & Afolabi, O. O. (2006). Validity of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96(1-2), 89-93.
Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Afolabi OO. Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a Screening Tool for Depression Amongst Nigerian University Students. J Affect Disord. 2006;96(1-2):89-93. PubMed PMID: 16857265.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Validity of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. AU - Adewuya,Abiodun O, AU - Ola,Bola A, AU - Afolabi,Olusegun O, Y1 - 2006/07/20/ PY - 2006/01/18/received PY - 2006/05/11/revised PY - 2006/05/25/accepted PY - 2006/7/22/pubmed PY - 2007/2/13/medline PY - 2006/7/22/entrez SP - 89 EP - 93 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 96 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The common self-rated depression scales are lengthy, old and do not reflect the current diagnostic classifications criteria of depressive disorders. This study aimed to validate the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. METHODS: A representative sample of university students (n=512) completed the PHQ-9 and the Beck's Depressive Inventory (BDI). They were also interviewed for clinical diagnoses of depressive disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). RESULTS: The internal consistency of questions within the PHQ-9 was 0.85. The PHQ-9 had good concurrent validity with the BDI (r=0.67, P<0.001). It also had a good (r=0.894, P<0.001) one month test-retest reliability. Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off score for minor depressive disorder is 5 (sensitivity 0.897, specificity 0.989, Positive Predictive Value - PPV 0.875, Negative Predictive Value - NPV 0.981 and Overall Correct Classification - OCC rate 0.973) while for major depressive disorder only is 10 (sensitivity 0.846, specificity 0.994, PPV 0.750, NPV 0.996 and OCC rate 0.992). LIMITATIONS: The study limitations include use of a specific group in community, moderate sample size and screening for only minor and major depressive disorders while neglecting other depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9 has good psychometric properties amongst Nigerian university students. Because of its validity, reliability, brevity and ease of administration, the PHQ-9 will be a valuable tool for estimating depression amongst college students in Nigerian community. More studies are needed to test the usefulness of the translated local language versions of this instrument amongst the community in sub-Saharan Africa. SN - 0165-0327 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16857265/Validity_of_the_patient_health_questionnaire__PHQ_9__as_a_screening_tool_for_depression_amongst_Nigerian_university_students_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0327(06)00253-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -