Nutritional status at 2 years in former infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia influences nutrition and pulmonary outcomes during childhood.Pediatr Res. 2006 Sep; 60(3):340-4.PR
Improved survival rates for extreme prematurity have been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with long-term nutritional and pulmonary function outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional study of 52 children who had been born prematurely, had experienced BPD, and were 4-8 y old at the time of the study. Undernutrition was defined as a Z score for weight-for-height of <-2 SD. Body composition and lung function were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stepwise logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with undernutrition and pulmonary function. Eighteen children (35%) with BPD, predominantly girls, were undernourished. Undernutrition occurred within the first months of life and was associated with high REE. Multivariate analysis showed that factors significantly associated with undernutrition were female sex and undernutrition at age 2 y. Thirty-one children (60%) had abnormal lung function tests. Multivariate analysis showed that undernutrition at age 2 y was the only factor associated with the risk of developing distension of the airways. Nutritional status at age 2 y in children who had BPD in infancy influences nutritional and pulmonary outcomes in childhood.