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Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects.
Clin Ther. 2006 May; 28(5):734-44.CT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Antiepileptic drugs are usually administere dorally, but alternative routes of drug delivery may be required when oral administration is not feasible.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-dose bioavailability of an IV formulation of levetiracetam relative to oral tablets and the multiple-dose tolerability and pharmacokinetics of this formulation compared with placebo in healthy subjects.

METHODS

This study consisted of 2 phases. Subjects entered the first phase, which was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover bioavailability comparison of a 15-minute IV infusion of levetiracetam 1,500 mg and three 500-mg oral tablets. Subjects then entered the second phase, a multiple-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (2:1), parallel-group tolerability and pharmacokinetic study, in which they received 9 successive doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg IV or placebo at 12-hour intervals. Plasma levetiracetam concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The comparison of bioavailability was based on the 90% CIs around the geometric mean ratios for AUC and C(max) (IV/oral).

RESULTS

Eighteen subjects (9 men, 9 women) participated in the study. All subjects were white. Their mean (SD) age was 35.0 (9.3) years, mean weight 73.3 (14.2) kg, and mean body mass index 23.9 (2.5) kg/m(2). After a single dose, the IV infusion and oral tablet were similar in terms of C(max) (50.5 and 47.7 microg/mL, respectively) and AUC (392.4 and 427.9 pg x h/mL). The geometric mean IV/oral ratios were 92.2 (90 % CI, 89.0-95.6) for AUC and 103.7 (90% CI, 91.6-117.4) for C(max) indicating that the IV and oral formulations were bioequivalent. After multiple twice-daily infusions, steady state was reached within 48 hours. Seventeen (94%) of 18 subjects had >or=1 treatment-emergent adverse event after single-dose administration. During the single-dose phase, the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 89% (16/18) for the IV formulation and 72% (13/18) for the oral tablets; during the multiple-dose phase, the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 67% (8/12) in the IV levetiracetam group and 33% (2/6) in the placebo group. The most common adverse events in the single-dose phase were somnolence (61% IV vs 28% oral) and postural dizziness (17% vs 39%, respectively). The most common adverse events with IV levetiracetam in the multiple-dose phase were also somnolence (33% vs 17% placebo) and postural dizziness (25% vs 0% placebo).

CONCLUSIONS

In these healthy subjects, single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as a 15-minute IV infusion and as oral tablets were bioequivalent. General and local tolerability during multiple dosing were good. Steady state was reached within 48 hours. Despite the limitations of a study of short duration and small size conducted in healthy subjects, the findings suggest that use of a 15-minute IV infusion of levetiracetam should be further investigated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

SGS Life Sciences Services, Research Unit Stuivenberg, Antwerp, Belgium. steven_ramael@sgs.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16861095

Citation

Ramael, Steven, et al. "Single-dose Bioavailability of Levetiracetam Intravenous Infusion Relative to Oral Tablets and Multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Levetiracetam Intravenous Infusion Compared With Placebo in Healthy Subjects." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 5, 2006, pp. 734-44.
Ramael S, De Smedt F, Toublanc N, et al. Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects. Clin Ther. 2006;28(5):734-44.
Ramael, S., De Smedt, F., Toublanc, N., Otoul, C., Boulanger, P., Riethuisen, J. M., & Stockis, A. (2006). Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects. Clinical Therapeutics, 28(5), 734-44.
Ramael S, et al. Single-dose Bioavailability of Levetiracetam Intravenous Infusion Relative to Oral Tablets and Multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Levetiracetam Intravenous Infusion Compared With Placebo in Healthy Subjects. Clin Ther. 2006;28(5):734-44. PubMed PMID: 16861095.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects. AU - Ramael,Steven, AU - De Smedt,Florence, AU - Toublanc,Nathalie, AU - Otoul,Christian, AU - Boulanger,Pierre, AU - Riethuisen,Jean-Michel, AU - Stockis,Armel, PY - 2006/03/03/accepted PY - 2006/7/25/pubmed PY - 2006/9/30/medline PY - 2006/7/25/entrez SP - 734 EP - 44 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 28 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs are usually administere dorally, but alternative routes of drug delivery may be required when oral administration is not feasible. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-dose bioavailability of an IV formulation of levetiracetam relative to oral tablets and the multiple-dose tolerability and pharmacokinetics of this formulation compared with placebo in healthy subjects. METHODS: This study consisted of 2 phases. Subjects entered the first phase, which was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover bioavailability comparison of a 15-minute IV infusion of levetiracetam 1,500 mg and three 500-mg oral tablets. Subjects then entered the second phase, a multiple-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (2:1), parallel-group tolerability and pharmacokinetic study, in which they received 9 successive doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg IV or placebo at 12-hour intervals. Plasma levetiracetam concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The comparison of bioavailability was based on the 90% CIs around the geometric mean ratios for AUC and C(max) (IV/oral). RESULTS: Eighteen subjects (9 men, 9 women) participated in the study. All subjects were white. Their mean (SD) age was 35.0 (9.3) years, mean weight 73.3 (14.2) kg, and mean body mass index 23.9 (2.5) kg/m(2). After a single dose, the IV infusion and oral tablet were similar in terms of C(max) (50.5 and 47.7 microg/mL, respectively) and AUC (392.4 and 427.9 pg x h/mL). The geometric mean IV/oral ratios were 92.2 (90 % CI, 89.0-95.6) for AUC and 103.7 (90% CI, 91.6-117.4) for C(max) indicating that the IV and oral formulations were bioequivalent. After multiple twice-daily infusions, steady state was reached within 48 hours. Seventeen (94%) of 18 subjects had >or=1 treatment-emergent adverse event after single-dose administration. During the single-dose phase, the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 89% (16/18) for the IV formulation and 72% (13/18) for the oral tablets; during the multiple-dose phase, the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 67% (8/12) in the IV levetiracetam group and 33% (2/6) in the placebo group. The most common adverse events in the single-dose phase were somnolence (61% IV vs 28% oral) and postural dizziness (17% vs 39%, respectively). The most common adverse events with IV levetiracetam in the multiple-dose phase were also somnolence (33% vs 17% placebo) and postural dizziness (25% vs 0% placebo). CONCLUSIONS: In these healthy subjects, single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as a 15-minute IV infusion and as oral tablets were bioequivalent. General and local tolerability during multiple dosing were good. Steady state was reached within 48 hours. Despite the limitations of a study of short duration and small size conducted in healthy subjects, the findings suggest that use of a 15-minute IV infusion of levetiracetam should be further investigated. SN - 0149-2918 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16861095/Single_dose_bioavailability_of_levetiracetam_intravenous_infusion_relative_to_oral_tablets_and_multiple_dose_pharmacokinetics_and_tolerability_of_levetiracetam_intravenous_infusion_compared_with_placebo_in_healthy_subjects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-2918(06)00115-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -