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Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Arch Intern Med 2006; 166(14):1466-75AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite the popularity of low-glycemic index (GI) and high-protein diets, to our knowledge no randomized, controlled trials have systematically compared their relative effects on weight loss and cardiovascular risk.

METHODS

A total of 129 overweight or obese young adults (body mass index, > or =25 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters]) were assigned to 1 of 4 reduced-fat, high-fiber diets for 12 weeks. Diets 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively; diets 3 and 4 were high protein (25% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively. The glycemic load was highest in diet 1 and lowest in diet 4. Changes in weight, body composition, and blood chemistry profile were studied.

RESULTS

While all groups lost a similar mean +/- SE percentage of weight (diet 1, -4.2% +/- 0.6%; diet 2, -5.5% +/- 0.5%; diet 3, -6.2% +/- 0.4%; and diet 4, -4.8% +/- 0.7%; P = .09), the proportion of subjects in each group who lost 5% or more of body weight varied significantly by diet (diet 1, 31%; diet 2, 56%; diet 3, 66%; and diet 4, 33%; P = .01). Women on diets 2 and 3 lost approximately 80% more fat mass (-4.5 +/- 0.5 [mean +/- SE] kg and -4.6 +/- 0.5 kg) than those on diet 1 (-2.5 +/- 0.5 kg; P = .007). Mean +/- SE low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the diet 2 group (-6.6 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [-0.17 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]) but increased in the diet 3 group (+10.0 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [+0.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]; P = .02). Goals for energy distribution were not achieved exactly: both carbohydrate groups ate less fat, and the diet 2 group ate more fiber.

CONCLUSION

Both high-protein and low-GI regimens increase body fat loss, but cardiovascular risk reduction is optimized by a high-carbohydrate, low-GI diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16864756

Citation

McMillan-Price, Joanna, et al. "Comparison of 4 Diets of Varying Glycemic Load On Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Overweight and Obese Young Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 14, 2006, pp. 1466-75.
McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, et al. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(14):1466-75.
McMillan-Price, J., Petocz, P., Atkinson, F., O'neill, K., Samman, S., Steinbeck, K., ... Brand-Miller, J. (2006). Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(14), pp. 1466-75.
McMillan-Price J, et al. Comparison of 4 Diets of Varying Glycemic Load On Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Overweight and Obese Young Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24;166(14):1466-75. PubMed PMID: 16864756.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. AU - McMillan-Price,Joanna, AU - Petocz,Peter, AU - Atkinson,Fiona, AU - O'neill,Kathleen, AU - Samman,Samir, AU - Steinbeck,Katherine, AU - Caterson,Ian, AU - Brand-Miller,Jennie, PY - 2006/7/26/pubmed PY - 2006/8/11/medline PY - 2006/7/26/entrez SP - 1466 EP - 75 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 166 IS - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of low-glycemic index (GI) and high-protein diets, to our knowledge no randomized, controlled trials have systematically compared their relative effects on weight loss and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A total of 129 overweight or obese young adults (body mass index, > or =25 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters]) were assigned to 1 of 4 reduced-fat, high-fiber diets for 12 weeks. Diets 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively; diets 3 and 4 were high protein (25% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively. The glycemic load was highest in diet 1 and lowest in diet 4. Changes in weight, body composition, and blood chemistry profile were studied. RESULTS: While all groups lost a similar mean +/- SE percentage of weight (diet 1, -4.2% +/- 0.6%; diet 2, -5.5% +/- 0.5%; diet 3, -6.2% +/- 0.4%; and diet 4, -4.8% +/- 0.7%; P = .09), the proportion of subjects in each group who lost 5% or more of body weight varied significantly by diet (diet 1, 31%; diet 2, 56%; diet 3, 66%; and diet 4, 33%; P = .01). Women on diets 2 and 3 lost approximately 80% more fat mass (-4.5 +/- 0.5 [mean +/- SE] kg and -4.6 +/- 0.5 kg) than those on diet 1 (-2.5 +/- 0.5 kg; P = .007). Mean +/- SE low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the diet 2 group (-6.6 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [-0.17 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]) but increased in the diet 3 group (+10.0 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [+0.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]; P = .02). Goals for energy distribution were not achieved exactly: both carbohydrate groups ate less fat, and the diet 2 group ate more fiber. CONCLUSION: Both high-protein and low-GI regimens increase body fat loss, but cardiovascular risk reduction is optimized by a high-carbohydrate, low-GI diet. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16864756/Comparison_of_4_diets_of_varying_glycemic_load_on_weight_loss_and_cardiovascular_risk_reduction_in_overweight_and_obese_young_adults:_a_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.166.14.1466 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -