Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the cranial digenean Troglotrema acutum (Leuckart, 1842).J Parasitol. 2006 Jun; 92(3):441-53.JP
Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the main characters of the mature spermatozoon of Troglotrema acutum are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were obtained from the nasolacrimal sinuses of an American mink (Mustela vison). Spermiogenesis in T. acutum follows the general pattern of digeneans. The zone of differentiation is a conical-shaped area bordered by cortical microtubules and delimited at its base by a ring of arched membranes. This area contains 2 centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body between them. The centrioles develop 2 free flagella that grow ortogonally to the median cytoplasmic process. The posterior flagellar rotation and proximodistal fusion of the free flagella with the median cytoplasmic process originate the spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of T. acutum is characterized by the presence of 2 axonemes of different lengths presenting the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, 2 bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, 2 mitochondria, a nucleus, and granules of glycogen. These ultrastructural characters are compared with other digenean species previously studied and the importance of different spermatological features is discussed.