In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics of acyclovir dipeptide ester prodrugs by microdialysis in rabbits.Mol Pharm. 2006 Jul-Aug; 3(4):431-40.MP
In vivo corneal absorption of the dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) was evaluated using microdialysis in rabbits. A corneal well was placed on the cornea of the anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits with implanted linear probes into the aqueous humor. Two hundred microliters of a 1% solution of L-valine-ACV (VACV), glycine-valine-ACV (GVACV), valine-valine-ACV (VVACV), and valine-tyrosine-ACV (VYACV) was placed in the corneal well and was allowed to diffuse for a period of 2 h, following which the drug solution was aspirated and well removed. Samples were collected every 20 min throughout the infusion and postinfusion phases and were analyzed by HPLC to obtain the aqueous humor concentrations. Absorption rate constants of all the compounds were found to be lower than the elimination rate constants. GVACV exhibited highest absorption rate (ka) compared with other prodrugs, but all the prodrugs showed similar terminal elimination rate (lambda(z)). The time of maximum absorption (Tmax) of ACV after administration of VACV and the dipeptide prodrugs did not vary significantly (p < 0.05). GVACV exhibited the highest concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) upon absorption (p < 0.05) compared to VACV, VVACV, and VYACV. Dipeptide prodrugs of ACV were absorbed through the cornea at similar rates but to varying extents. The dipeptide prodrug GVACV owing to its enhanced absorption of ACV seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of ocular HSV infections.