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Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.
Biotechnol J. 2006 Apr; 1(4):420-39.BJ

Abstract

Essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential for humans, and are freely available in the diet. Hence, EFA deficiency is extremely rare in humans. To derive the full benefits of EFAs, they need to be metabolized to their respective long-chain metabolites, i.e., dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) from LA; and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from ALA. Some of these long-chain metabolites not only form precursors to respective prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), and leukotrienes (LTs), but also give rise to lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins that have potent anti-inflammatory actions. Furthermore, EFAs and their metabolites may function as endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme and 3-hdroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO) enhancers, anti-hypertensives, and anti-atherosclerotic molecules. Recent studies revealed that EFAs react with NO to yield respective nitroalkene derivatives that exert cell-signaling actions via ligation and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The metabolism of EFAs is altered in several diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Thus, EFAs and their derivatives have varied biological actions and seem to be involved in several physiological and pathological processes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

UND Life Sciences, Shaker Heights, OH 44120, USA. undurti@hotmail.com

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16892270

Citation

Das, Undurti N.. "Essential Fatty Acids: Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathology." Biotechnology Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, 2006, pp. 420-39.
Das UN. Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. Biotechnol J. 2006;1(4):420-39.
Das, U. N. (2006). Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. Biotechnology Journal, 1(4), 420-39.
Das UN. Essential Fatty Acids: Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathology. Biotechnol J. 2006;1(4):420-39. PubMed PMID: 16892270.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. A1 - Das,Undurti N, PY - 2006/8/8/pubmed PY - 2006/10/25/medline PY - 2006/8/8/entrez SP - 420 EP - 39 JF - Biotechnology journal JO - Biotechnol J VL - 1 IS - 4 N2 - Essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential for humans, and are freely available in the diet. Hence, EFA deficiency is extremely rare in humans. To derive the full benefits of EFAs, they need to be metabolized to their respective long-chain metabolites, i.e., dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) from LA; and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from ALA. Some of these long-chain metabolites not only form precursors to respective prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), and leukotrienes (LTs), but also give rise to lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins that have potent anti-inflammatory actions. Furthermore, EFAs and their metabolites may function as endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme and 3-hdroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO) enhancers, anti-hypertensives, and anti-atherosclerotic molecules. Recent studies revealed that EFAs react with NO to yield respective nitroalkene derivatives that exert cell-signaling actions via ligation and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The metabolism of EFAs is altered in several diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Thus, EFAs and their derivatives have varied biological actions and seem to be involved in several physiological and pathological processes. SN - 1860-6768 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16892270/Essential_fatty_acids:_biochemistry_physiology_and_pathology_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.200600012 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -