Balanced conscious sedation with intravenous induction and inhalational maintenance for patients requiring endoscopic and/or surgical procedures.Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007 Feb; 24(2):116-21.EJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
The use of inhalation sedation with sub-anaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide mixture is expected to reduce amounts of intravenous sedative drugs needed to produce a balanced sedation with the benefits of having reduced side-effects.
Eighty-two patients requiring endoscopic and/or surgical procedures under conscious sedation and local anaesthesia were recruited for this pilot study. Conscious sedation was induced with a titrated dose of midazolam and propofol given intravenously until the clinical end-point of conscious sedation was achieved. Subsequently, during the procedure, the patient was asked to breathe sevoflurane 0.1-0.3% and a fixed ratio of 40% nitrous oxide in oxygen given through a face mask.
In 78 patients (95.1%), the treatment was completed successfully. Patients were discharged back to the wards within 4-16 min (10.1) without significant side-effects. Treatment was satisfactorily accepted by 38 patients (48.7%) and considered excellent by 40 patients (51.3%).
The use of titrated doses of intravenous sedative drugs for induction of conscious sedation followed by the use of low concentrations (0.1-0.3%) of sevoflurane combined with 40% nitrous oxide for maintenance of conscious sedation in patients requiring endoscopic and/or surgical procedures under local anaesthesia, has the potential advantages of reducing amounts of intravenous sedative drugs, less likelihood of problems from drug side-effects and fast recovery and discharge time. Further investigations to establish the technique are currently in progress.