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Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug; 47(8):766-74.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for the development of comorbid conduct disorder (CD) and depression. The current study examined potential psychosocial risk factors for CD and depression in a clinic-based sample of 203 boys (aged 6-10 years) with ADHD.

METHODS

The boys and their mothers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of cognitive, behavioral, academic, and family functioning. Potential predictors of CD and depression involved four domains: parenting behaviors, family environment, academic/cognitive functioning, and peer relations. ADHD groups were defined using mother- and teacher-report of DSM-IV symptoms. Mother-ratings of DSM-IV symptoms were obtained for a subsample of 91 boys approximately 5 years after the initial assessment.

RESULTS

For both mother- and teacher-defined ADHD groups, social problems were related to depression symptoms; hostile, inconsistent, and detached parenting behaviors were related to CD symptoms; and family environment characterized by low cohesion, high conflict, and low marital satisfaction was related to CD and depression symptoms. For the teacher-defined ADHD group, parenting variables also predicted depression symptoms. Academic and cognitive variables did not predict CD or depression symptoms when parenting, family, and peer relationship variables were taken into account. Depression prospectively predicted CD, but not the reverse, and parental hostile control and familial conflict prospectively predicted CD for the teacher-defined ADHD group only.

CONCLUSIONS

Source-specificity is a useful consideration when describing the relation of parenting and home environment with CD and depression symptoms in boys with ADHD. Intervention efforts that address these parenting, family, and peer relationship variables may aid in preventing the development of comorbid conditions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122-6085, USA. ddrabick@temple.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16898990

Citation

Drabick, Deborah A G., et al. "Co-occurrence of Conduct Disorder and Depression in a Clinic-based Sample of Boys With ADHD." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 47, no. 8, 2006, pp. 766-74.
Drabick DA, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47(8):766-74.
Drabick, D. A., Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2006). Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47(8), 766-74.
Drabick DA, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. Co-occurrence of Conduct Disorder and Depression in a Clinic-based Sample of Boys With ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47(8):766-74. PubMed PMID: 16898990.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD. AU - Drabick,Deborah A G, AU - Gadow,Kenneth D, AU - Sprafkin,Joyce, PY - 2006/8/11/pubmed PY - 2006/12/16/medline PY - 2006/8/11/entrez SP - 766 EP - 74 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 47 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for the development of comorbid conduct disorder (CD) and depression. The current study examined potential psychosocial risk factors for CD and depression in a clinic-based sample of 203 boys (aged 6-10 years) with ADHD. METHODS: The boys and their mothers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of cognitive, behavioral, academic, and family functioning. Potential predictors of CD and depression involved four domains: parenting behaviors, family environment, academic/cognitive functioning, and peer relations. ADHD groups were defined using mother- and teacher-report of DSM-IV symptoms. Mother-ratings of DSM-IV symptoms were obtained for a subsample of 91 boys approximately 5 years after the initial assessment. RESULTS: For both mother- and teacher-defined ADHD groups, social problems were related to depression symptoms; hostile, inconsistent, and detached parenting behaviors were related to CD symptoms; and family environment characterized by low cohesion, high conflict, and low marital satisfaction was related to CD and depression symptoms. For the teacher-defined ADHD group, parenting variables also predicted depression symptoms. Academic and cognitive variables did not predict CD or depression symptoms when parenting, family, and peer relationship variables were taken into account. Depression prospectively predicted CD, but not the reverse, and parental hostile control and familial conflict prospectively predicted CD for the teacher-defined ADHD group only. CONCLUSIONS: Source-specificity is a useful consideration when describing the relation of parenting and home environment with CD and depression symptoms in boys with ADHD. Intervention efforts that address these parenting, family, and peer relationship variables may aid in preventing the development of comorbid conditions. SN - 0021-9630 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16898990/Co_occurrence_of_conduct_disorder_and_depression_in_a_clinic_based_sample_of_boys_with_ADHD_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01625.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -