Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of rofecoxib analogues as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs).Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 01; 14(23):7898-909.BM
A group of 4-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-3-phenyl-2(5H)furanones possessing an acetyl, 3-oxobut-1-ynyl, [hydroxyl(or alkoxy)imino]alkyl, [hydroxyl(or alkoxy)imino]alkynyl, and N-alkoxy(or N-phenoxy)carbonyl-N-hydroxy-N-ethylamino substituents at the para-position of the C-3 phenyl ring of rofecoxib were synthesized. This group of compounds was designed for evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) that exhibit in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In vitro COX-1/COX-2, and 5-LOX/15-LOX, isozyme inhibition structure-activity relationships identified 3-[4-(1-hydroxyimino)ethylphenyl]-4-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-2(5H)furanone (17a) having an optimal combination of COX-2 (COX-2 IC50 = 1.4 microM; COX-2 SI > 71), and 5-LOX and 15 LOX (5-LOX IC50 = 0.28 microM; 15-LOX IC50 = 0.32 microM), inhibitory effects. It was also discovered that 3-[4-(3-hydroxyiminobut-1-ynyl)phenyl]-4-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-2(5H)furanone (18a) possesses dual COX-2 (IC50 = 2.7 microM) and 5-LOX (IC50 = 0.30 microM) inhibitor actions. Further in vivo studies employing a rat carrageenan-induced paw edema model showed that the oxime compounds (17a, 18a) were more potent anti-inflammatory agents than the 5-LOX inhibitor caffeic acid, and 15-LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), but less potent than the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The results of this investigation showed that incorporation of a para-oxime moiety on the C-3 phenyl ring of rofecoxib provides a suitable template for the design of dual inhibitors of the COX and LOX enzymes.