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Influence of demographic factors and sport type on growth hormone-responsive markers in elite athletes.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov; 91(11):4424-32.JC

Abstract

CONTEXT

GH-responsive markers of the IGF system and of collagen turnover hold promise as the basis of a GH doping test.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and sporting type on GH-responsive serum markers in a large cohort of elite athletes from different ethnic backgrounds.

DESIGN

The study was designed as a cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 1103 elite athletes (699 males, 404 females), aged 22.2 +/- 5.2 yr, from 12 countries and 10 major sporting categories participated in this study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Serum IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid labile subunit (ALS), and collagen markers [N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP)] were measured.

RESULTS

There was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.14 to -0.58, P < 0.0005) between age and each of the GH-responsive markers. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were all lower (P < 0.05), whereas the collagen markers PINP, ICTP, and PIIINP were higher (P < 0.05) in men than in women. Multiple regression analysis indicated that age, gender, BMI, and ethnicity accounted for 23-54% of total between-subject variability of the markers. Age and gender cumulatively accounted for 91% of the attributable variation of IGF-I and more than 80% for PINP, ICTP, and PIIINP. Gender exerted the greatest effect on ALS (48%), and BMI accounted for less than 12% attributable variation for all markers. The influence of ethnicity was greatest for IGFBP-3 and ALS; however, for the other markers, it accounted for less than 6% attributable variation. Analysis of 995 athletes indicated that sporting type contributed 5-19% of attributable variation.

CONCLUSIONS

Age and gender were major determinants of variability of GH-responsive markers except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. Ethnicity is unlikely to confound the validity of a GH doping test based on IGF-I and these collagen markers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Garvan Institute of Medical Research and Department of Endocrinology, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16912136

Citation

Nelson, A E., et al. "Influence of Demographic Factors and Sport Type On Growth Hormone-responsive Markers in Elite Athletes." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 11, 2006, pp. 4424-32.
Nelson AE, Howe CJ, Nguyen TV, et al. Influence of demographic factors and sport type on growth hormone-responsive markers in elite athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(11):4424-32.
Nelson, A. E., Howe, C. J., Nguyen, T. V., Leung, K. C., Trout, G. J., Seibel, M. J., Baxter, R. C., Handelsman, D. J., Kazlauskas, R., & Ho, K. K. (2006). Influence of demographic factors and sport type on growth hormone-responsive markers in elite athletes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91(11), 4424-32.
Nelson AE, et al. Influence of Demographic Factors and Sport Type On Growth Hormone-responsive Markers in Elite Athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(11):4424-32. PubMed PMID: 16912136.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Influence of demographic factors and sport type on growth hormone-responsive markers in elite athletes. AU - Nelson,A E, AU - Howe,C J, AU - Nguyen,T V, AU - Leung,K-C, AU - Trout,G J, AU - Seibel,M J, AU - Baxter,R C, AU - Handelsman,D J, AU - Kazlauskas,R, AU - Ho,K K, Y1 - 2006/08/15/ PY - 2006/8/17/pubmed PY - 2007/1/16/medline PY - 2006/8/17/entrez SP - 4424 EP - 32 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J Clin Endocrinol Metab VL - 91 IS - 11 N2 - CONTEXT: GH-responsive markers of the IGF system and of collagen turnover hold promise as the basis of a GH doping test. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and sporting type on GH-responsive serum markers in a large cohort of elite athletes from different ethnic backgrounds. DESIGN: The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1103 elite athletes (699 males, 404 females), aged 22.2 +/- 5.2 yr, from 12 countries and 10 major sporting categories participated in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid labile subunit (ALS), and collagen markers [N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP)] were measured. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.14 to -0.58, P < 0.0005) between age and each of the GH-responsive markers. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were all lower (P < 0.05), whereas the collagen markers PINP, ICTP, and PIIINP were higher (P < 0.05) in men than in women. Multiple regression analysis indicated that age, gender, BMI, and ethnicity accounted for 23-54% of total between-subject variability of the markers. Age and gender cumulatively accounted for 91% of the attributable variation of IGF-I and more than 80% for PINP, ICTP, and PIIINP. Gender exerted the greatest effect on ALS (48%), and BMI accounted for less than 12% attributable variation for all markers. The influence of ethnicity was greatest for IGFBP-3 and ALS; however, for the other markers, it accounted for less than 6% attributable variation. Analysis of 995 athletes indicated that sporting type contributed 5-19% of attributable variation. CONCLUSIONS: Age and gender were major determinants of variability of GH-responsive markers except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. Ethnicity is unlikely to confound the validity of a GH doping test based on IGF-I and these collagen markers. SN - 0021-972X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16912136/Influence_of_demographic_factors_and_sport_type_on_growth_hormone_responsive_markers_in_elite_athletes_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2006-0612 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -