Systolic blood pressure response to exercise in type 1 diabetes families compared with healthy control individuals.J Hypertens. 2006 Sep; 24(9):1745-51.JH
Oxidative stress is increased in type 1 diabetes families. Since oxidative damage is a mediator of vascular injury and familial predisposition to hypertension increases the risk of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy, we studied blood pressure responses to exercise and cardiovascular risk factors in type 1 diabetes families.
Thirty-five type 1 patients, 74 first-degree relatives, and 95 healthy individuals without established coronary heart disease underwent a cycle ergometer test. Examination included medical history, lifestyle questionnaire, body weight, blood pressure, and laboratory tests [fasting plasma glucose and insulin, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), plasma lipids, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, folate, plasma thiols, and albumin excretion rate].
Diabetic patients had higher plasma glucose, HbA1c, folate, and albuminuria, while lower plasma thiols than controls; relatives differed from controls in higher plasma total cholesterol and albuminuria, lower plasma thiols. No patient presented exercised-induced angina. Diabetic patients achieved a higher maximal exercise systolic blood pressure (similar workload); systolic pressure remained high during recovery. Relatives showed higher values of systolic pressure at peak exercise (same workload). The following were associated with an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise: diastolic blood pressure and HbA1c in the control sample; disease duration and fibrinogen in the diabetic group; plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), housework, and plasma thiols among relatives.
An abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing has been identified for the first time in asymptomatic normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetics, which was associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and oxidative damage. Moreover, in healthy normotensive non-diabetic control individuals (without a family history of type 1 diabetes), the systolic blood pressure response to exercise was significantly correlated with HbA1c levels.