The potential antioxidant effect of raloxifene treatment: a study on heart, liver and brain cortex of ovariectomized female rats.Cell Biochem Funct. 2007 May-Jun; 25(3):259-66.CB
The antioxidant activity of some compounds buffer the free radicals generated either endogenously or exogenously, thus decreasing the potential damage mediated by oxidation. Recent studies documented that raloxifene has antioxidant properties in vitro. However, there are limited animal studies available to show raloxifene's antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of raloxifene on antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX, TrxR and the levels of GSH and MDA in heart, liver and brain cortex of ovariectomized female rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g (n=24) were divided into three groups: (I) Eight non-ovariectomized rats were used as naive controls without any treatment (non-ovariectomized group, n=8). Five weeks after ovariectomy, (II) Ovariectomized placebo group (n=8) was given physiological saline, and (III) Raloxifene group (n=8) was given raloxifene 1 mg/kg sc. daily for 12 days. Ovariectomy induced significant increases on SOD, GPX, CAT activity and MDA levels in brain, heart and liver tissues compared to non-ovariectomized rats (p<0.05). Raloxifene treatment led to decreased levels of SOD activity in heart, GPX activity in brain and CAT activity in liver tissue when compared to ovariectomized group (p<0.05) but there was no change in activity of TrxR in all groups. The levels of MDA in brain, heart and liver tissues increased in ovariectomized group when compared to non-ovariectomized rats (p<0.05). Raloxifene had a significant attenuating effect on the levels of MDA in brain and heart tissues. Our results also indicate that the levels of GSH in brain, heart and liver tissue decreased when compared to non-ovariectomized rats. Raloxifene treatment was observed to significantly increase the levels of GSH in brain and heart tissues (p<0.05). However, there were insignificant differences for the GSH levels in liver tissues of ovariectomized placebo or raloxifene groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that raloxifene may be more effective against oxidative stress in heart and brain than in liver tissue.