Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: the SUNSET study.J Hum Hypertens. 2006 Nov; 20(11):874-81.JH
We sought to determine factors associated with hypertension awareness, pharmacological treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We analysed data on hypertensive subjects (Dutch n=130, Hindustani n=115 and African Surinamese n=225). After adjustments for important covariates, hypertension awareness was more common in Dutch people with abdominal obesity and family history of hypertension (FHH). Abdominal obesity was also associated with higher level of awareness in African Surinamese. Female sex, FHH and recent physician (general practitioner (GP)) visit were associated with higher level of awareness in both African and Hindustani Surinamese. Among the Dutch, hypertension treatment was more common in those with abdominal obesity, FHH and GP visit. Among Hindustanis, female sex, abdominal obesity and GP visit were positively associated with treatment of hypertension. Old age, female sex, FHH and GP visit were positively associated, whereas smoking was negatively associated with lower treatment in African Surinamese. High education and more physical activity were associated with better blood pressure (BP) control, whereas obesity was associated with poor BP control among the Dutch. Among African Surinamese, female sex and FHH were associated with better BP control, whereas abdominal obesity was associated with poor BP control. Only old age was associated with poor BP control in Hindustanis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that more attention is needed in promoting awareness and treatment among those with lower hypertension risk (i.e., normal body weight people and those without FHH), those without recent GP visits in all ethnic groups and African and Hindustani Surinamese men and smokers. More effort is also needed in hypertension control among Dutch people with low education, obesity and inadequate physical activity, African Surinamese men and those without FHH and old Hindustani people.