Activity of grape extracts from Greek varieties of Vitis vinifera against mutagenicity induced by bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102.Mutat Res. 2006 Oct 30; 609(2):165-75.MR
Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that grape extracts could prevent certain steps in carcinogenesis and a few mechanisms have been proposed for this activity. In this study, the potential antimutagenic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from two Greek grape varieties of Vitis vinifera against DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed as a potential novel chemopreventive mechanism, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. The two grape varieties were Assyrtiko (white grapes) and Mandilaria (red grapes), while the oxidant mutagens used were bleomycin (BLM) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Since it has been considered that polyphenols present in grapes are their most potent biologically active compounds, we also tested the effects of polyphenol-rich fractions as well as some of the more common grape polyphenols on the activity of the two test mutagens. These polyphenols were quercetin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid. Almost all extracts showed inhibitory activity against both mutagens. On the other hand, polyphenol-rich fractions as well as individual polyphenols at concentrations found in the extracts either did not diminish or did enhance the activity of the mutagens. These results suggest that the protection of DNA from mutations induced by ROS may be one of the mechanisms accounting for the chemopreventive activity of grape extracts. However, it seems that this protective activity may not be attributed to polyphenols but rather to a synergism of many compounds in the grapes.