Enhancing the retention of phytochemicals and organoleptic attributes in muscadine grape juice through a combined approach between dense phase CO2 processing and copigmentation.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 06; 54(18):6705-12.JA
This study evaluated the phytochemical stability and organoleptic attributes of an ascorbic acid-fortified muscadine grape juice as affected by dense phase CO2 processing (DP-CO2) and addition of thyme polyphenolic cofactors (Thymus vulgaris; 1:100 anthocyanin-to-cofactor molar ratio) in efforts to prevent phytochemical losses that occur during storage of anthocyanin-containing beverages, especially in the presence of carbonyl compounds commonly produced during thermal processing and storage. DP-CO2 processing insignificantly altered initial juice phytochemical and antioxidant content, whereas thermal pasteurization reduced anthocyanins (263 mg/L), ascorbic acid (42 mg/L), soluble phenolics (266 mg/L), and antioxidant capacity (6 microM Trolox equivalents/mL). Similar trends were observed during storage, and data showed that increasing the CO2 level from 8 to 16% during DP-CO2 was instrumental in reducing juice phytochemical and antioxidant degradation. Copigmentation was instrumental in retaining higher anthocyanin, soluble phenolics, and antioxidant capacity during storage without affecting initial juice aroma and flavor characteristics. Moreover, on the basis of overall likeability scores, panelists preferred copigmented juices, which had increased juice color intensity and masked the detrimental color fading that occurred during storage, especially when compared to thermally pasteurized juices. DP-CO2 and copigmentation were effective strategies to reduce phytochemical and color deterioration that occurred in muscadine juice during storage without affecting their organoleptic attributes.