Characterization of three low-molecular-weight Glu-D3 subunit genes in common wheat.Theor Appl Genet. 2006 Nov; 113(7):1247-59.TA
Low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are of great importance for processing quality of pan bread and noodles. The objectives of this study are to identify LMW-GS coding genes at GluD3 locus on chromosome 1D and to establish relationships between these genes and GluD3 alleles (a, b, c, d, and e) defined by protein electrophoretic mobility. Specific primer sets were designed to amplify each of the three LMW-GS chromosome 1D gene regions including upstream, coding and downstream regions of eight wheat cultivars containing GluD3 a, b, c, d and e alleles. Three LMW-GS genes, designated as GluD3-1, GluD3-2 and GluD3-3, were amplified from the eight wheat cultivars. The allelic variants of these three genes were analysed at the DNA and protein level. GluD3-1 showed two allelic variants or haplotypes, one common to cultivars containing protein alleles a, d and e (designated GluD3-11) and the other was present in cultivars with alleles b and c (designated GluD3-12). Comparing with GluD3-12, a 3-bp deletion was found in the coding region of the N-terminal repetitive domain of GluD3-11, leading to a glutamine deletion at the 116th position. GluD3-2 had three variants at the DNA level in the eight cultivars, which were designated as GluD3-21, GluD3-22 and GluD3-23. In comparison to GluD3-21, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected for GluD3-22 in the signal peptide region, resulting in an amino acid change from alanine to threonine at the 11th position; and 11 mutations were found at GluD3-23, with five in upstream region, four in coding region and two in downstream region, respectively. GluD3-3 had two haplotypes, designated as GluD3-31 and GluD3-32, both belonging to LMW-s glutenin subunits though their first amino acids in N-terminal region are different. Compared with the GenBank GluD3 genes, nucleotide sequences of GluD3-21 and GluD3-23 were the same as X13306 and AB062875, respectively. GluD3-22 and GluD3-11 had only one-base difference from U86027 and AB062865. GluD3-12 was not found in the GenBank database, indicating a newly identified GluD3 gene variation. GluD3-3 was a new gene different from any other known GluD3 genes. Analyses of the relationship between Glu-D3 alleles defined by protein electrophoretic mobility and different GluD3 gene variations at the DNA or protein level provided molecular basis for DNA based identification of glutenin alleles.