Gene-for-gene defense of wheat against the Hessian fly lacks a classical oxidative burst.Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006 Sep; 19(9):1023-33.MP
Genetic similarities between plant interactions with microbial pathogens and wheat interactions with Hessian fly larvae prompted us to investigate defense and counterdefense mechanisms. Plant oxidative burst, a rapid increase in the levels of active oxygen species (AOS) within the initial 24 h of an interaction with pathogens, commonly is associated with defenses that are triggered by gene-for-gene recognition events similar to those involving wheat and Hessian fly larvae. RNAs encoded by Hessian fly superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes, involved in detoxification of AOS, increased in first-instar larvae during both compatible and incompatible interactions. However, mRNA levels of a wheat NADPH oxidase (NOX) gene that generates superoxide (O2-) did not increase. In addition, inhibiting wheat NOX enzyme with diphenyleneiodonium did not result in increased survival of avirulent larvae. However, nitro blue tetrazolium staining indicated that basal levels of O2- are present in both uninfested and infested wheat tissue. mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in detoxification of the cellular environment, SOD, CAT, and glutathione-S-transferase did not increase in abundance. Histochemical staining with 3,3-diaminobenzidine revealed no increases in wheat hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during infestation that were correlated with the changes in larval SOD and CAT mRNA. However, treatment with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin demonstrated the presence of basal levels of H2O2 in the elongation zone of both infested and uninfested plants. The accumulation of a wheat flavanone 3-hydroxylase mRNA did show some parallels with larval gene mRNA profiles. These results suggested that larvae encounter stresses imposed by mechanisms other than an oxidative burst in wheat seedlings.