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Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II.
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118(3):682-90JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Several studies in European homes have described allergen levels from the house dust mite species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and to a lesser extent Dermatophagoides farinae, but geographic comparisons of exposure levels and risk factors have been hampered by a lack of standardized methods.

OBJECTIVE

To study the distribution and determinants of the major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in 10 European countries using a common protocol.

METHODS

During home visits with 3580 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II from 22 study centers, mattress dust was sampled and analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 allergen. Information on housing characteristics was obtained by both observations and interview.

RESULTS

Der 1 and Der 2 allergens were detectable (>/=0.1 mug/g) in 68% and 53% of the samples, respectively. Large differences in allergen levels between study centers were observed, and geographic patterns for Der p 1 and Der f 1 were different. Low winter temperatures reduced Der p 1 rather than Der f 1. Important risk factors for high allergen levels included an older mattress, a lower floor level of the bedroom, limited ventilation of the bedroom, and dampness for Der p 1 but not for Der f 1.

CONCLUSION

There are large qualitative and quantitative differences of house dust mite allergen levels in Europe, which can partly be explained by geographic and housing characteristics.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Mite allergen exposure may be reduced by replacing the mattress regularly and increasing ventilation of the bedroom, particularly in winter.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain. jpzock@imim.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16950288

Citation

Zock, Jan-Paul, et al. "Distribution and Determinants of House Dust Mite Allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 118, no. 3, 2006, pp. 682-90.
Zock JP, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, et al. Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(3):682-90.
Zock, J. P., Heinrich, J., Jarvis, D., Verlato, G., Norbäck, D., Plana, E., ... Luczynska, C. (2006). Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 118(3), pp. 682-90.
Zock JP, et al. Distribution and Determinants of House Dust Mite Allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(3):682-90. PubMed PMID: 16950288.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. AU - Zock,Jan-Paul, AU - Heinrich,Joachim, AU - Jarvis,Deborah, AU - Verlato,Giuseppe, AU - Norbäck,Dan, AU - Plana,Estel, AU - Sunyer,Jordi, AU - Chinn,Susan, AU - Olivieri,Mario, AU - Soon,Argo, AU - Villani,Simona, AU - Ponzio,Michela, AU - Dahlman-Hoglund,Anna, AU - Svanes,Cecilie, AU - Luczynska,Christina, AU - ,, Y1 - 2006/07/27/ PY - 2005/12/22/received PY - 2006/04/07/revised PY - 2006/04/10/accepted PY - 2006/9/5/pubmed PY - 2006/10/18/medline PY - 2006/9/5/entrez SP - 682 EP - 90 JF - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology JO - J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. VL - 118 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Several studies in European homes have described allergen levels from the house dust mite species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and to a lesser extent Dermatophagoides farinae, but geographic comparisons of exposure levels and risk factors have been hampered by a lack of standardized methods. OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and determinants of the major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in 10 European countries using a common protocol. METHODS: During home visits with 3580 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II from 22 study centers, mattress dust was sampled and analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 allergen. Information on housing characteristics was obtained by both observations and interview. RESULTS: Der 1 and Der 2 allergens were detectable (>/=0.1 mug/g) in 68% and 53% of the samples, respectively. Large differences in allergen levels between study centers were observed, and geographic patterns for Der p 1 and Der f 1 were different. Low winter temperatures reduced Der p 1 rather than Der f 1. Important risk factors for high allergen levels included an older mattress, a lower floor level of the bedroom, limited ventilation of the bedroom, and dampness for Der p 1 but not for Der f 1. CONCLUSION: There are large qualitative and quantitative differences of house dust mite allergen levels in Europe, which can partly be explained by geographic and housing characteristics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Mite allergen exposure may be reduced by replacing the mattress regularly and increasing ventilation of the bedroom, particularly in winter. SN - 0091-6749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16950288/Distribution_and_determinants_of_house_dust_mite_allergens_in_Europe:_the_European_Community_Respiratory_Health_Survey_II_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091-6749(06)01363-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -