Metabolic hormones profile in 2 weeks old healthy infants of diabetic mothers.Saudi Med J 2006; 27(9):1338-45SM
To determine the concentration of plasma leptin and other metabolic hormones in offspring of diabetic and none diabetic mothers after 2 weeks of age. The relationship between leptin and metabolic hormones was also investigated.
Included in the study were 79 newborns from the Neonatal Unit at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2004-January 2005. The newborns were categorized into 3 main groups: the control group, consisting of 32 infants of non-diabetic mothers; the gestational diabetes mothers (GDM) group, consisting of 26 infants; and the frank diabetic mothers (FDM), consisting of 21 infants. Infants of diabetic mothers were further subdivided into those of dietary (d) or insulin (i) dependent mothers. Plasma leptin, insulin, cortisol and free thyroxin levels were measured by enzyme link immunosorbent assay.
No significant difference in plasma leptin was observed between the studied groups. The GDM-d and FDM-d showed lower glucose versus controls (p<0.001 and p<0.05). There was significant correlation between leptin and glucose in the GDM group (r=0.18, p< 0.05) and with insulin in GDM-d on diet control (r=0.37, p< 0.01).
After 2 weeks of life, no difference in plasma leptin between infants of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers was observed, which may be important for the stimulation of feeding behavior and acquisition of energy homeostasis. Significant association between plasma leptin and insulin in offspring of GDM supports the hypothesis that functional adipoinsular axis might exist in term newborns.