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Lettuce for human consumption collected in Costa Rica contains complex communities of culturable oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria.

Abstract

The present widespread use of antimicrobials in crop farming is based upon their successful application in human medicine. However, recent evidence suggests that the massive anthropogenic release of antimicrobials into the biosphere has selected for resistant bacteria and facilitated the transfer of resistance genes among them. This work deals with the examination of iceberg lettuce collected at 10 farms from two regions in Costa Rica. Farmers from nine sampling sites regularly apply commercial formulations containing gentamicin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, or a combination of them without being able to indicate how often and how much of these products have been sprayed onto the crops. One organic farm was also investigated for comparative purposes. Oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria were abundantly detected using selective enrichment cultures. Furthermore, colony mixtures from selective plates were characterized by chemotaxonomical and molecular fingerprinting methods. Both types of resistant communities accounted for a significant fraction of all culturable bacteria and included several resistance genes as well as factors for their potential horizontal transfer. Given the fact that lettuce is eaten raw, it may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and/or their resistance genes from the environment to the microbial biota of the human intestine.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Abteilung Mikrobiologie, Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastrasse 11, D-49069 Osnabrück, Germany. rodriguez@biologie.uni-osnabrueck.de

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    Source

    MeSH

    Agriculture
    Bacteria
    Costa Rica
    DNA, Bacterial
    Drug Resistance, Bacterial
    Feces
    Food Microbiology
    Genes, Bacterial
    Gentamicins
    Humans
    Lettuce
    Oxytetracycline
    Plasmids
    Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
    RNA, Bacterial
    RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
    Tetracycline Resistance
    Water Microbiology

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16957206

    Citation

    Rodríguez, César, et al. "Lettuce for Human Consumption Collected in Costa Rica Contains Complex Communities of Culturable Oxytetracycline- and Gentamicin-resistant Bacteria." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 9, 2006, pp. 5870-6.
    Rodríguez C, Lang L, Wang A, et al. Lettuce for human consumption collected in Costa Rica contains complex communities of culturable oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72(9):5870-6.
    Rodríguez, C., Lang, L., Wang, A., Altendorf, K., García, F., & Lipski, A. (2006). Lettuce for human consumption collected in Costa Rica contains complex communities of culturable oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(9), pp. 5870-6.
    Rodríguez C, et al. Lettuce for Human Consumption Collected in Costa Rica Contains Complex Communities of Culturable Oxytetracycline- and Gentamicin-resistant Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72(9):5870-6. PubMed PMID: 16957206.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lettuce for human consumption collected in Costa Rica contains complex communities of culturable oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria. AU - Rodríguez,César, AU - Lang,Lore, AU - Wang,Amy, AU - Altendorf,Karlheinz, AU - García,Fernando, AU - Lipski,André, PY - 2006/9/8/pubmed PY - 2006/11/10/medline PY - 2006/9/8/entrez SP - 5870 EP - 6 JF - Applied and environmental microbiology JO - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. VL - 72 IS - 9 N2 - The present widespread use of antimicrobials in crop farming is based upon their successful application in human medicine. However, recent evidence suggests that the massive anthropogenic release of antimicrobials into the biosphere has selected for resistant bacteria and facilitated the transfer of resistance genes among them. This work deals with the examination of iceberg lettuce collected at 10 farms from two regions in Costa Rica. Farmers from nine sampling sites regularly apply commercial formulations containing gentamicin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, or a combination of them without being able to indicate how often and how much of these products have been sprayed onto the crops. One organic farm was also investigated for comparative purposes. Oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria were abundantly detected using selective enrichment cultures. Furthermore, colony mixtures from selective plates were characterized by chemotaxonomical and molecular fingerprinting methods. Both types of resistant communities accounted for a significant fraction of all culturable bacteria and included several resistance genes as well as factors for their potential horizontal transfer. Given the fact that lettuce is eaten raw, it may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and/or their resistance genes from the environment to the microbial biota of the human intestine. SN - 0099-2240 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16957206/full_citation L2 - http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16957206 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -