Production of ingredient-type cheddar cheese with accelerated flavor development by addition of enzyme-modified cheese powder.J Dairy Sci. 2006 Oct; 89(10):3749-62.JD
Fast-ripened Cheddar cheeses for ingredient purposes were produced by addition of a dried enzyme-modified cheese (EMC; 0.25 and 1 g/100 g of milled curd) at the salting stage during a standard Cheddar cheese-making procedure. Populations of starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), levels of proteolysis and lipolysis, volatile analysis, and flavor development (by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis) were monitored over a 6-mo ripening period. Levels of free AA and free fatty acids were elevated in the experimental cheeses on d 1 because of inclusion of the EMC. Counts of NSLAB were also elevated in the experimental cheeses compared with the control cheese from the start of ripening. Levels of free AA were slightly elevated in the experimental cheeses at 1, 2, and 4 mo, but significantly greater accumulations were detected by 6 mo of ripening, with His, Leu, and glutamate reflecting the greatest increases. Levels of long-chain free fatty acids increased up to 2 mo, indicating an initial stimulation of lipolysis, but had decreased by 6 mo, indicating greater catabolism, probably caused by NSLAB and increased starter lysis. Principal component analysis of the volatile compounds showed few differences in the aroma profiles among the cheeses up to 4 mo of ripening, but a large separation of the cheeses supplemented with EMC relative to the control was observed by 6 mo. Sensory analysis of the cheeses with added EMC showed an acceleration of 2 mo in flavor development compared with the control cheese with the addition of 1 g/100 g of EMC developing a flavor profile at 4 mo similar to the control cheese at 6 mo of ripening. However, atypical Cheddar flavors developed on prolonged storage. This study shows the potential of adding EMC during Cheddar production to produce a fast-ripened ingredient-type Cheddar cheese.