Defective gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity and bleeding in Rambouillet sheep.Vet Pathol 2006; 43(5):726-32VP
A flock of Rambouillet sheep was examined because of increased lamb mortality caused by ineffective hemostasis at parturition. Neonatal-affected lambs presented with inadequate hemostasis at the umbilicus, pale mucus membranes, and markedly prolonged activated clotting time. Affected lambs had consistently prolonged 1-stage prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times that supported a defect in the common pathway or defects in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. Decreased activity of vitamin K-dependent procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, and X in male and female lambs suggested either a defect of the hepatic enzyme gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, or vitamin K(1) 2,3 epoxide reductase. Affected lamb hepatic gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity was markedly decreased compared with that of age- and sex-matched control lambs, while vitamin K(1) 2,3 epoxide reductase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities were similar between an affected and normal lamb. Subcutaneous vitamin K(1) supplementation did not increase vitamin K-dependent procoagulant factor activities in 3 lambs administered vitamin K(1) daily. These data confirm defective gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity as the cause of impaired coagulation of sheep in this flock. This flock represents the only viable animal model of hereditarily defective gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity.